|Centuries:||18th century · 19th century · 20th century|
|Decades:|| 1800s 1810s 1820s 1830s 1840s|
1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s
|Categories:|| Births – Deaths |
Foudings – Disestablishments
The 19th century (1801–1900) was a period in history marked by the growing influence of the British Empire, the German Empire and the United States, spurring military conflicts but also advances in science and exploration.
After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the British Empire became the world's leading power, controlling one quarter of the world's population and one third of the land area. The 19th century was an era of invention and discovery, with significant developments in the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, electricity, and metallurgy that lay the groundwork for the technological advances of the 20th century. The Industrial Revolution began in Europe. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of young children in factories and mines.
The 19th century was remarkable in the widespread formation of new settlement foundations which were particularly prevalent across North America and Australasia, with a significant proportion of the two continents' largest cities being founded at some point in the century. In the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe and migrated to the 'New Worlds'.
Lnks to articles on wikipedia to define terms used in article on here
- wikipedia:Industrial revolution
- wikipedia:British Regency,
- wikipedia:Victorian era
- wikipedia:British Empire
- 1801: The Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland merge to form the United Kingdom.
- 1807: Britain declares the Slave Trade illegal..
- 1810: The University of Berlin, the world's first research university, is founded. Among its students and faculty are Hegel, Marx, and Bismarck. The German university reform proves to be so successful that its model is copied around the world (see History of European research universities).
- 1825: Erie Canal opened connecting the Great Lakes between Canada and the United States to the Atlantic Ocean, facilitating trade.
- 1833: Slavery Abolition Act bans slavery throughout the British Empire.
- 1837–1901: Queen Victoria's reign is considered the apex of the wikipedia:British Empire and is referred to as the wikipedia:Victorian era.
- 1840: New Zealand is founded, as the Treaty of Waitangi is signed between the Māori and British.
- 1844: First publicly funded telegraph line in the world—between Baltimore and Washington—sends demonstration message on May 24, ushering in the age of the telegraph. This message read "What hath God wrought?" (Bible, Numbers 23:23)
- 1845–49: The Irish Potato Famine led to the Irish diaspora.
- 1848–58: California Gold Rush.
- 1851: The Great Exhibition in London was the world's first international Expo or World's Fair.
- 1851–60s: Victorian gold rush in Australia
- 1855: bessemer process enables steel to be mass produced.
- 1856: World's first oil refinery in Romania
- 1866: Successful transatlantic telegraph cable laid following an earlier attempt in 1858.
- 1867: The United States purchased Alaska from Russia.
- 1867: Canadian Confederation formed.
- 1869: First Transcontinental Railroad completed in United States on May 10.
- 1869: The Suez Canal opens linking the Mediterranean to the Red Sea.
- 1871–1914: wikipedia:Second Industrial Revolution
- Karl Benz - Inventor of the Motor Car
- Nicolaus Otto - Inventor of the Four stroke engine
- Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom
add any prominent busines men here featured on the wiki
The 19th century saw the birth of science as a profession; the term scientist was coined in 1833 by William Whewell. Among the most influential ideas of the 19th century were those of Charles Darwin, who in 1859 published the book The Origin of Species, which introduced the idea of evolution by natural selection. Louis Pasteur made the first vaccine against rabies, and also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, including the asymmetry of crystals. Thomas Alva Edison gave the world a practical everyday lightbulb. Karl Weierstrass and other mathematicians also carried out the arithmetization of analysis. But the most important step in science at this time was the ideas formulated by Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell. Their work changed the face of physics and made possible for new technology to come about. Other important 19th century scientists included:
- Gottlieb Daimler, engineer, industrial designer and industrialist
- Thomas Edison, inventor
- Wilhelm Maybach, car-engine and automobile designer and industrialist
- ↑ Encyclopædia Britannica's Great Inventions. Encyclopædia Britannica.
- ↑ "The United States and the Industrial Revolution in the 19th Century"
- ↑ Laura Del Col, West Virginia University, The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth-Century England
- ↑ The Atlantic: Can the US afford immigration?. Migration News. December 1996.
- ↑ "William Whewell". Stanford University. Retrieved on 2008-03-03.
- Private Letters from the 1800s century - at the Letter Repository
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