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The automotive industry designs, develops, manufactures, markets, and sells motor vehicles, and is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue.

The term automotive industry usually does not include industries dedicated to automobiles after delivery to the customer, such as repair shops and fuel filling stations.

Consumption trendsEdit

About 250 million vehicles are in use in the United States. Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 260 billion gallons of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly.[1] In the opinion of some, urban transport systems based around the car have proved unsustainable, consuming excessive energy, affecting the health of populations, and delivering a declining level of service despite increasing investments. Many of these negative impacts fall disproportionately on those social groups who are also least likely to own and drive cars.[2][3][dead link] [4][dead link] The sustainable transport movement focuses on solutions to these problems.

The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Other potentially powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia.[5]

HistoryEdit

The first practical automobile with a petrol engine was built by Karl Benz in 1885 in Mannheim, Germany. Benz was granted a patent for his automobile on 29 January 1886, and began the first production of automobiles in 1888, after Bertha Benz, his wife, had proved with the first long-distance trip in August 1888 (from Mannheim to Pforzheim and back) that the horseless coach was absolutely suitable for daily use. Since 2008 a Bertha Benz Memorial Route commemorates this event.

Soon after, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Stuttgart in 1889 designed a vehicle from scratch to be an automobile, rather than a horse-drawn carriage fitted with an engine. They also are usually credited as inventors of the first motorcycle, the Daimler Reitwagen, in 1885, but Italy's Enrico Bernardi, of the University of Padua, in 1882, patented a 0.024 horsepower (17.9 W) 122 cc (7.4 cu in) one-cylinder petrol motor, fitting it into his son's tricycle, making it at least a candidate for the first automobile, and first motorcycle;.[6]:p.26 Bernardi enlarged the tricycle in 1892 to carry two adults.[6]:p.26

Main article: Automotive industry by country

Crisis in the automotive industryEdit

Main article: Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2009

World motor vehicle productionEdit

See also: List of countries by motor vehicle production

By yearEdit

Global Production of Motorvehicles

(cars and commercial vehicles)

Year Production Change Source
1997 52,987,000   [7]
1998 57,987,000 -2.70% [7]
1999 56,258,892 2.98% [8]
2000 58,374,162 3.80% [9]
2001 56,304,925 -3.50% [10]
2002 58,994,318 4.80% [11]
2003 60,663,225 2.80% [12]
2004 64,496,220 6.30% [13]
2005 66,482,439 3.10% [14]
2006 69,222,975 4.10% [15]
2007 73,266,061 5.80% [16]
2008 70,520,493 -3.70% [17]
2009 60,986,985 -13.50% [18]


By countryEdit

Main article: List of countries by motor vehicle production

By manufacturerEdit


Company relationshipsEdit

It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.

Notable current relationships include:[citation needed]

Top vehicle manufacturing groups (by volume)Edit

The table below shows the world's largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2009 end of year production figures from the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA)[21] for the parent group, and then alphabetically by marque. Joint ventures are not reflected in this table. Production figures of joint ventures are typically included in OICA rankings, which can become a source of controversy.[22][23]

MarqueCountry of originOwnershipMarkets
1. Toyota Motor Corporation ( Japan)
DaihatsuJapan SubsidiaryGlobal, except North America and Australia
HinoJapan SubsidiaryAsia Pacific, North America and South America
LexusJapan DivisionGlobal, except Iran and Caucasus
ScionUnited States DivisionNorth America
ToyotaJapan DivisionGlobal, except Iran and Caucasus
2. General Motors Company ( United States)
BuickUnited States DivisionNorth America, Middle East, East Asia, except Japan
CadillacUnited States DivisionGlobal, except South America, South Asia, South East Asia, Pacific
ChevroletUnited States DivisionGlobal, except Australia, New Zealand
GMCUnited States DivisionNorth America, Middle East
Holden Australia SubsidiaryAustralia, New Zealand
Opel Germany SubsidiaryEurope (except United Kingdom), Middle East/Africa, Asia/Pacific, South America
Vauxhall United Kingdom DivisionUnited Kingdom
3. Volkswagen Group AG ( Germany)
AudiGermany SubsidiaryGlobal
BentleyUnited Kingdom SubsidiaryGlobal
BugattiFrance SubsidiaryGlobal
LamborghiniItaly SubsidiaryGlobal
ScaniaSweden SubsidiaryGlobal
SEATSpain SubsidiaryEurope, South America, North Africa, Middle East
ŠkodaCzech Republic SubsidiaryGlobal, except North America, Japan and South Africa
VolkswagenGermany SubsidiaryGlobal
Volkswagen Commercial VehiclesGermany SubsidiaryGlobal
4. Renault-Nissan ( France Japan)
AutoVAZRussia SubsidiaryRussia
DaciaRomania SubsidiaryEurope, Latin America, Africa, Asia, except Japan
RenaultFrance DivisionGlobal, except North America, South Korea
Renault SamsungSouth Korea SubsidiarySouth America, Asia, except Japan and China
InfinitiJapan DivisionGlobal, except Japan, South America and Africa
NissanJapan DivisionGlobal
5. Ford Motor Company ( United States)
FordUnited States DivisionGlobal
LincolnUnited States DivisionNorth America, Middle East, Japan, South Korea
6. Hyundai Kia Automotive Group ( South Korea)
HyundaiSouth Korea DivisionGlobal, except Mexico
KiaSouth Korea DivisionGlobal, except Mexico
7. PSA Peugeot Citroën S.A. ( France)
CitroënFrance SubsidiaryGlobal, except North America, South Asia
PeugeotFrance SubsidiaryGlobal, except North America, South Asia
8. Honda Motor Company ( Japan)
AcuraJapan DivisionNorth America, East Asia, except Japan
HondaJapan DivisionGlobal
9. Fiat S.p.A. ( Italy)
AbarthItaly SubsidiaryGlobal, except North America
Alfa RomeoItaly SubsidiaryGlobal
FerrariItaly SubsidiaryGlobal
FiatItaly SubsidiaryGlobal
Fiat ProfessionalItaly SubsidiaryGlobal, except North America and Japan
IvecoItaly SubsidiaryGlobal, except North America
LanciaItaly SubsidiaryEurope and Japan
MaseratiItaly SubsidiaryGlobal
10. Suzuki Motor Corporation ( Japan)
Maruti SuzukiIndia SubsidiaryIndia, Middle East, South America
Pak Suzuki MotorsPakistan SubsidiaryPakistan
Magyar SuzukiHungary SubsidiaryHungary, Europe
SuzukiJapan DivisionGlobal
11. Daimler AG ( Germany)
FreightlinerUnited States SubsidiaryNorth America, South Africa
MasterPakistan SubsidiaryPakistan
MaybachGermany DivisionGlobal
Mercedes-BenzGermany DivisionGlobal
Mitsubishi FusoJapan SubsidiaryGlobal
OrionCanada SubsidiaryNorth America
SetraGermany SubsidiaryEurope
SmartGermany DivisionNorth America, Europe, Japan, South East Asia, South Africa
Thomas BuiltUnited States SubsidiaryNorth America
Western StarUnited States SubsidiaryNorth America
12. Chana Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
ChanaPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina, South Africa
HafeiPeople's Republic of China SubsidiaryChina
13. BMW AG ( Germany)
BMWGermany DivisionGlobal
MINIUnited Kingdom DivisionGlobal
Rolls-RoyceUnited Kingdom SubsidiaryGlobal
14. Mazda Motor Corporation ( Japan)
MazdaJapan DivisionGlobal
15. Chrysler Group, LLC ( United States)
ChryslerUnited States DivisionGlobal
DodgeUnited States DivisionGlobal
JeepUnited States DivisionGlobal
RamUnited States DivisionNorth America
16. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation ( Japan)
MitsubishiJapan DivisionGlobal
17. Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Corporation, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
BAWPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
FotonPeople's Republic of China SubsidiaryChina
18. Tata Motors, Ltd ( India)
HispanoSpain SubsidiaryEurope
JaguarUnited Kingdom SubsidiaryGlobal
Land RoverUnited Kingdom SubsidiaryGlobal
TataIndia DivisionIndia, South Africa
Tata DaewooSouth Korea SubsidiarySouth Korea
19. Dongfeng Motor Corporation ( People's Republic of China)
DongfengPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
20. First Automotive Group Corporation ( People's Republic of China)
BesturnPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
FreewindPeople's Republic of China SubsidiaryChina
HaimaPeople's Republic of China SubsidiaryChina
HongqiPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
JiaxingPeople's Republic of China SubsidiaryChina
VitaPeople's Republic of China SubsidiaryChina
XialiPeople's Republic of China SubsidiaryChina
21. Chery Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
CheryPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina, Africa, South East Asia, Russia
RiichPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
RelyPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
22. Fuji Heavy Industries, Ltd ( Japan)
SubaruJapan DivisionGlobal
23. BYD Auto ( People's Republic of China)
BYDPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina, Russia
24. Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation ( People's Republic of China)
MGUnited Kingdom SubsidiaryUnited Kingdom, Chile, Argentina, China
SsangYong**South Korea SubsidiaryGlobal
RoewePeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
SoyatPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
YuejinPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
25. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
JACPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
26. Geely Automobile ( People's Republic of China)
GeelyPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina, Russia, North Africa
MaplePeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
Volvo (Cars)Sweden SubsidiaryGlobal
27. Isuzu Motors, Ltd ( Japan)
IsuzuJapan DivisionGlobal, except North America
28. Brilliance China Automotive Holding, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
BrilliancePeople's Republic of China DivisionChina, North Africa
JinbeiPeople's Republic of China SubsidiaryChina
29. OAO AvtoVAZ ( Russia)
LadaRussia DivisionRussia, Europe, North Africa
VAZRussia DivisionRussia, Europe
30. Great Wall Motor Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Great WallPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina, South Africa, Russia, North Africa, Australia
31. Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd ( India)
MahindraIndia DivisionIndia, South East Asia, Europe, North Africa, North America
32. Shandong Kaima ( China)
KaimaPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
JubaoPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
AofengPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
33. Proton Holdings, Bhd ( Malaysia)
ProtonMalaysia DivisionAsia Pacific (except Japan and South Africa), United Kingdom, Middle East
LotusUnited Kingdom SubsidiaryGlobal
34. China National Heavy Duty Truck Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
SinotrukHong Kong DivisionChina
35. AB Volvo ( Sweden)
MackUnited States SubsidiaryGlobal
Nissan DieselJapan SubsidiaryGlobal
NovaBusCanada SubsidiaryNorth America
PrevostCanada SubsidiaryNorth America
Renault (trucks)France SubsidiaryGlobal, except Japan
Volvo (trucks)Sweden DivisionGlobal
36. Chongqing Lifan Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
LifanPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
37. Fujian Motor Industry Group Company ( People's Republic of China)
SoueastPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
38. Kuozui Motors, Ltd ( Taiwan)
KuozuiRepublic of China SubsidiaryTaiwan
39. Shaanxi Automobile Group Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
ShaanxiPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
40. Porsche ( Germany)
PorscheGermany SubsidiaryGlobal
41. Ziyang Nanjun Automobile Co., Ltd. ( People's Republic of China)
NanjunPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
42. GAZ Group ( Russia)
GAZRussia SubsidiaryRussia
KAvZRussia SubsidiaryRussia
LiAZRussia SubsidiaryRussia
UralAZRussia DivisionRussia
43. Navistar International Corporation ( United States)
ICUnited States SubsidiaryNorth America
InternationalUnited States DivisionNorth America, South Asia
44. Guangzhou Automobile Group ( China)
ChangfengPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
45. Paccar, Inc ( United States)
DAFNetherlands SubsidiaryGlobal, except North America
KenworthUnited States DivisionNorth America
LeylandUnited Kingdom SubsidiaryEurope
PeterbiltUnited States DivisionNorth America
46. Chenzhou Ji'ao ( China)
Ji'aoPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
47. Qingling Motors Company Ltd. ( China)
QinglingPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
48. Hebei ZXAUTO ( China)
ZhongxingPeople's Republic of China DivisionChina
49. Ashok Leyland ( India)
Ashok LeylandIndia DivisionIndia

NotesEdit

* Porsche Automobil Holding SE has a 50.7 percent share in the Volkswagen Group.[24] However, Volkswagen Group will acquire Porsche AG, the automotive manufacturer under a new "Integrated Automotive Group". This merger/acquisition is expected to be fully completed in mid-2011.[25][26]

** Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation is in the process of selling SsangYong Motor Company to Mahindra & Mahindra.[when?]

Minor automotive manufacturersEdit

Main article: Minor automotive manufacturing groups

There are many automobile manufacturers other than the major global companies. They are mostly regional or operating in niche markets.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. "Automobile Industry Introduction". Plunkett Research (2008). Retrieved on 2010-09-09.
  2. Kenworthy, J R (2004). "Transport Energy Use and Greenhouse Emissions in Urban Passenger Transport Systems" (PDF). Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy. Retrieved on 2008-07-22.
  3. World Health Organisation, Europe. "Health effects of transport". Archived from the original on 2006-02-06. Retrieved on 2008-08-29.
  4. Social Exclusion Unit, Office of the Prime Minister (UK). "Making the Connections - final report on transport and social exclusion" (PDF). Retrieved on 2003-02-01.
  5. Paul A. Eisenstein Building BRIC's: 4 Markets Could Soon Dominate the Auto World at TheDetroitBureau.com
  6. 6.0 6.1 Georgano, G. N. Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985)
  7. 7.0 7.1 http://oica.net/wp-content/uploads/2007/06/cl98type.pdf
  8. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/1999-statistics/
  9. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2000-statistics/
  10. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2001-statistics/
  11. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2002-statistics/
  12. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2003-statistics/
  13. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2004-statistics/
  14. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2005-statistics/
  15. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2006-statistics/
  16. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2007-statistics/
  17. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2008-statistics/
  18. http://www.oica.net/category/production-statistics/
  19. "Ford And Mazda To Sign Divorce Papers Tomorrow". Thetruthaboutcars.com (2009-11-17). Retrieved on 2011-01-11.
  20. "IKCO takes lead in quality Tondar 90 production". Previous.presstv.com (2009-12-24). Retrieved on 2010-09-09.
  21. "World Motor Vehicle Production: World Ranking of Manufacturers 2009" (PDF). OICA. Retrieved on 2010-07-27.
  22. "GM Slips to Number Two Worldwide, Ford to Fourth". The Truth About Cars. Retrieved on 2010-06-12.
  23. "TTAC Announces World's Top Ten Automakers". The Truth About Cars. Retrieved on 2010-06-12.
  24. "Volkswagen Group - Shareholder Structure". Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft. VolkswagenAG.com. Retrieved on 22 December 2009.
  25. Porsche Automobil Holding SE, Stuttgart (20 November 2009). "Porsche Supervisory Board agrees on the contracts of implementation", http://www.porsche-se.com/pho/en/news/?pool=pho&id=2009-11-20. Retrieved on 22 November 2009. 
  26. Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft (13 August 2009). "Volkswagen Supervisory Board approves Comprehensive Agreement for an Integrated Automotive Group with Porsche", http://www.volkswagenag.com/vwag/vwcorp/info_center/en/news/2009/08/Volkswagen_Aufsichtsrat_stimmt_Grundlagenvereinbarung_fuer.html. Retrieved on 22 November 2009. 

External linksEdit

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