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Cadillac Fleetwood
[[File:1954 Cadillac Fleetwood|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Manufacturer General Motors
Production 1947–1996
Class Full-size luxury car

The Cadillac Fleetwood was a full-size luxury vehicle manufactured by Cadillac in America from 1947 to 1996. The name Fleetwood was first used with the Series 60 Special Fleetwood nameplate.[1] The car was designated as the flagship model when it was first introduced and continued in that position for a number of decades. Over its lifespan it always had an automatic transmission as standard and an option of several V8 and V6 engine versions were offered over the generations. It also came in a range different bodystyles including a coupé, convertible, sedan and a limousine was first offered in 1977 as an option.[1]

1946–1964 Edit

There were three first generation Fleetwood models:

1965–1970 Edit

Second generation
[[File:Cadillac Fleetwood (Gibeau Orange Julep)|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Production 1963–1970
Predecessor Cadillac Sixty Special
Body style(s) 4-door sedan
Layout FR layout
Platform D-body
Engine(s) 472 cu in (7.7 L) Lxx V8
500 cu in (8.2 L) Lxx V8
Wheelbase 3,302 mm (130.0 in)

For 1965, the Eldorado and Sixty Special officially became part of the Fleetwood line along with the Seventy-Five. A new Fleetwood Brougham line was also added as an upscale Sixty Special. The Brougham featured footrests, writing tables (through 1967), special rear reading lamps, and a vinyl roof to distinguish it from the standard Sixty Special. A glass partition was also available to separate the front and rear passengers.

Engines
Displacement Power Torque
472 cu in (7.7 L) 375 hp (280 kW) 525 lb·ft (712 N·m)[2]
500 cu in (8.2 L) 400 hp (300 kW) 550 lb·ft (750 N·m)[2]

1971–1976 Edit

Third generation
[[File:Cadillac Fleetwood -- 10-30-2009|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Production 1971–1976
Predecessor Cadillac Fleetwood 75
Body style(s) 4-door sedan
4-door limousine
Layout FR layout
Platform D-body
Engine(s) 472 cu in (7.7 L) Lxx V8
500 cu in (8.2 L) Lxx V8
Transmission(s) Automatic 4-speed
Wheelbase 130 in (3,300 mm)
Length 228.8 in (5,810 mm)
Curb weight Sedan: 5,213 lb (2,365 kg)

The third generation was the largest generation of Cadillac motor vehicles. The wheelbase was increased for the Deville and Fleetwood with a wheelbase stretching to 130 inches (3,300 mm).[2] There was a choice of two different engines the first being 472 cu in (7.7 L) and the second being 500 cu in (8.2 L) respectively. Performance from these engines did decrease with EPA restrictions on tailpipe emissions and grams per mile emissions requirements, forcing gear ratios to taller and taller ratios, dropping to as low as 2.41:1.

A new common frame/suspension design was introduced in the third generation Fleetwood which was also used in other GM full size car lines shared by the Chevrolet Caprice/Impala/Bel Air, Buick LeSabre/Electra, Oldsmobile 88/98, Pontiac Catalina/Bonneville/Parisienne, and the Cadillac Sedan Deville/Coupe Deville. While the other GM divisions used a front-steer setup (steering linkage in front of the engine crossmember), all Cadillac RWDs retained the 1961-vintage front suspension (rear steering linkage, eccentric cams in the steering knuckle in lieu of shims, strut rods attached to the framerails for caster adjustment). Rear suspensions were now driven by the Pontiac designed 8 7/8" (8.875") ring gear 10 bolt salisbury live axle.

A new trailer towing package was added for the 1971-1976 model run allowing larger trailer loads to be pulled. Coupled with heavy duty cooling, 3.23 gearing, high output 80 amp large frame alternator and heavy-duty THM400 transmission, the long wheelbase was ideal to pull trailers weighing up to 7,000 lb (3,200 kg).

From 1974 through 1976, a "Fleetwood Talisman" option was available. This option, which cost over $2500, featured an interior of overstuffed crushed velour seating for four passengers with writing tables located in lockable consoles between the front and rear seats. In 1975, the rear console/writing table was deleted to make room for a fifth passenger. Although the footrests were also included, as on the standard Fleetwood Brougham.

Engines
Displacement Power Torque
472 cu in (7.7 L) 375 hp (280 kW) 525 lb·ft (712 N·m)[2]
500 cu in (8.2 L) 400 hp (300 kW) 550 lb·ft (750 N·m)[2]

1977–1986 Edit

Fourth generation
[[File:1982 cadillac fleetwood brougham|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Production 1977–1986
Predecessor Cadillac Sixty Special
Cadillac Fleetwood 75
Successor Cadillac Brougham
Body style(s) 2-door coupe
4-door sedan
4-door limousine
Layout FR layout
Platform C-body
D-body
Engine(s) V6V8
Fuel capacity 25 US gal (95 L/21 imp gal)

For 1977, Fleetwoods were reduced in size along with all other GM full-size cars. The Fleetwood Brougham sedan had a 121.5 in (3086 mm) C-body platform. Also new was Cadillac's 425 in³ L33 V8, with an optional Oldsmobile diesel 350 V-8 arriving for 1979. The Fleetwood 75 Limousine used the long-wheelbase 144.5 in (3,670 mm) D-body chassis. The 1977-1979 Limousine was only available with the carbureted 425, the 1980-1984 only with a 368. The RWD Fleetwood 75 Limousine ended production in 1984.

For 1980, Fleetwood models retained the wheelbase and rear wheel drive chassis introduced for the 1977 models, but had restyled sheetmetal. A two-door Fleetwood Brougham, introduced in 1980, was based upon the Coupe de Ville but featured an exclusive formal landau vinyl roof. The RWD two-door was discontinued after the 1985 model year.

Engines
Displacement Power Torque
252 cu in (4.1 L) Buick V6 125 hp (93 kW) 205 lb·ft (278 N·m)
250 cu in (4.1 L) HT-4100 V8 135 hp (101 kW) 190 lb·ft (260 N·m)
307 cu in (5.0 L) Oldsmobile 307 V8 140 hp (100 kW) 245 lb·ft (332 N·m)
350 cu in (5.7 L) LF9 Diesel V8 105 hp (78 kW) 205 lb·ft (278 N·m)
368 cu in (6.0 L) L62 V8-6-4 V8 145 hp (108 kW) 270 lb·ft (370 N·m)
425 cu in (7.0 L) L33 V8 180 hp (130 kW) 320 lb·ft (430 N·m)
425 cu in (7.0 L) L35 V8 195 hp (145 kW) 320 lb·ft (430 N·m)

1985–1988 Edit

Fifth generation
[[File:Tuned '87-'88 Cadillac Fleetwood (Centropolis Laval '10)|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Production 1985–1988
Assembly Lake Orion, Michigan, USA
Body style(s) 4-door sedan
2-door coupe
4-door limousine
Layout FF layout
Platform C-body
Engine(s) 4.3 L LS2 Diesel V6
4.1 L HT-4100 V8
4.5 L HT-4500 V8
Transmission(s) 4-speed automatic
Wheelbase 110.8 in (2,810 mm) D'Elegance
115.8 in Sixty Special
134.4 in 75 Limousine
Length 196.4 in (4,990 mm)
Width 72.5 in (1,840 mm)
Height 55.0 in (1,400 mm)
Fuel capacity 18 US gal (68 L/15 imp gal)
Related Cadillac De Ville

For 1985, all Fleetwood models (except the Fleetwood Brougham) moved to the front wheel drive C-body. The standard Fleetwood shared the same 110.8 in (2814 mm) wheelbase as the other C-body cars, the Cadillac DeVille, Buick Electra, and Oldsmobile Ninety-Eight, while the Limousine "Fleetwood 75" stretched it to 134.4 in (3414 mm). The Fleetwood Brougham remained on the RWD platform, (which was redesignated as "D-body" for 1985) through 1986.

The rear wheel drive Fleetwood Brougham became simply the Cadillac Brougham for 1987, leaving all Fleetwoods on the new FWD platform. There was little more than trim differenced between the Fleetwood D'Elegance and Deville. The 1987 and 1988 Fleetwood Sixty Special used a stretched 115.8 in (2941 mm) version of the C-body, while the Limousine "Fleetwood 75" (discontinued after 1987) remained at 134.4 in (3414 mm) between the wheels.

The aluminum 4.1 L HT-4100 V8 was replaced by the 4.5 L HT-4500 for 1988. The engine was upped to 4.9 L for 1991's HT-4900.

Transmissions:

  • 1985–1986 THM440 T4
  • 1987–1988 4T60
Engines
Displacement Power Torque
263 cu in (4.3 L) LS2 V6 85 hp (63 kW)
250 cu in (4.1 L) HT-4100 V8 135 hp (101 kW) 190 lb·ft (260 N·m)
273 cu in (4.5 L) HT-4500 V8 155 hp (116 kW)

1989–1992, 1993 (Sixty Special) Edit

Sixth generation
[[File:89-92 Cadillac Fleetwood sedan|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Production 1989–1992
1993 (Sixty Special)
Assembly Lake Orion, Michigan, USA
Body style(s) 4-door sedan
2-door coupe
Layout FF layout
Platform C-body
Engine(s) 4.5 L HT-4500 V8
4.9 L HT-4900 V8
Transmission(s) 4-speed automatic
Wheelbase 110.8 in (2814 mm) coupes
113.8 in (2891 mm) sedans
Length 205.1 in (5,210 mm).
Width 73.4 in (1,860 mm).
Height 54.4 in (1,380 mm).
Fuel capacity 18 US gal (68 L/15 imp gal)
Related Cadillac De Ville

For 1989, the Fleetwood line was aligned more-closely with the Deville, essentially becoming trim variations on the same vehicle. The coupe versions of both shared the old 110.8 in (2814 mm) wheelbase, while the sedans (including the "Sixty Special") were unified at 113.8 in (2891 mm). Exterior dimensions were also identical between the model lines, with a length of 202.3 in (5138 mm) and 205.3 in (5215 mm) for the coupe and sedan, respectively.

The US$30,000 sticker price was a bargain compared to the large German luxury cars of the time, but Car and Driver felt that there was no comparison. They felt that the ride was "harsh", surprising when combined with a "feeble" .67 g of cornering grip. And the 155 hp (116 kW) V8 could only manage 10.9 s to 60 mph (96 km/h) for the 3615 lb (1640 kg) car.

Power jumped to 180 hp (134 kW) from the same 4.5 L engine for 1990 through the use of a dual-stage intake manifold and other changes. It was replaced by the 200 hp (149 kW) 4.9 L HT-4900 for 1991.

The Fleetwood departed the front-drive line-up for 1993 (as the Fleetwood name went on the new rear-drive replacement for the 1992 Brougham). Sixty Special continued in its front-wheel drive form, as it had since it was re-introduced in 1987, but this would be the last year. To visually differentiate the 1989–1993 De Ville from the upper-rung Fleetwood and Sixty-Special models, the front-drive Fleetwoods and Sixty Specials use fender-mounted "spats" or skirts over the rear wheels, while De Ville had full rear-wheel openings. For its final-year, there were 5,292 Sixty Specials built in 1993, including 688 with the optional "Ultra" Package that featured 22-way adjustable front seats, designed in Italy by Giorgio Guigiaro. This distinctive seating package had been standard on the Sixty Special since 1989, but in 1993, it became a $3,550.00 option. While it was based upon the deVille, the Sixty Special included eleven items as standard equipment, while those eleven items were optional at extra cost on deVilles, and in addition there were options for the Sixty Special, that were not available on the deVille, such as "Memory Seat" for driver with 2 recall settings, an "Exit" button" when pushed automatically powered the driver seat all the way rearward, and dual front seat power recliners. On the exterior the rear wheels were partially covered with the fender skirts, giving the car a longer and more "formal" look than the deVille.

Both the Fleetwood and Deville were coded as C-bodies in the fourth digit of the VIN. The fifth digit coded the Deville as "D" (with the later Touring Sedan becoming "T"), the Fleetwood as "B", and the Fleetwood Sixty Special as "S". The Sixty Special became the "G" code for 1991, and switched back to "B" for its 1993 run.

Transmissions:

  • 1989 4T60
  • 1990–1993 4T60E
Engines
Displacement Power Torque
273 cu in (4.5 L) HT-4500 V8 155 hp (116 kW)
273 cu in (4.5 L) HT-4500 V8 180 hp (130 kW)
300 cu in (4.9 L) HT-4500 V8 200 hp (150 kW) 275 lb·ft (373 N·m)

1993–1996 Edit

Seventh generation
[[File:93-96 Cadillac Fleetwood|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Also called Cadillac Fleetwood Brougham
Production 1993–1996
Assembly Arlington, Texas, United States
Predecessor Cadillac Brougham
Body style(s) 4-door sedan
Layout FR layout
Platform D-body
Engine(s) 5.7 L L05 V8
5.7 L LT1 V8[3]
Transmission(s) 4-speed automatic
Wheelbase 121.5 in (3,086 mm)
Length 225.0 in (5,720 mm)
Width 78.0 in (1,980 mm)
Height 57.1 in (1,450 mm)
Curb weight 4,477 lb (2,031 kg)

For 1993, the Fleetwood name was switched from the Deville's front wheel drive C-body to the newly revised rear wheel drive D-body, being one of the first American front-wheel drive vehicles to be returned to rear-wheel drive. This new body was based on that of the Chevrolet Caprice and Buick Roadmaster. In the case of the Fleetwood, though, the chassis was stretched five inches (127 mm) for a 121.5-inch (3,090 mm) wheelbase. At 225 inches (5,700 mm) overall, the Fleetwood was the longest production car made in the United States until production ceased in 1996.[4] All Fleetwoods had standard antilock brakes, traction control and dual front airbags.

In 1994 the Corvette-derived LT-1 350 cu in (5.7 L) engine to make 260 horsepower (190 kW) along with the new 4L60E automatic transmission.[3] Between 1993 and 1996, the Fleetwood Commercial chassis was used in lieu of the DeVille for funeral coaches and limousines. The DeVille was used again in 1997.

The 7,000 lb (3,200 kg) trailer towing package returned to the Gen 5 Fleetwood in 1993, something not seen in a production sedan since the 1971-1976 Gen 3 Fleetwood[citation needed]. The RPO V4P package included heavy duty cooling (RPO V08, which consisted of a 7 blade mechanical fan and an extra capacity radiator), RPO FE2 Suspension System Ride Handling, HD 4L60 transmission, RPO KC4 Cooling System Engine Oil, RPO KD1 Cooling System Transmission Oil, RPO KG9 140 amp alternator, and RPO GT4 3.73 gears with an 8.5" ring gear. In 1994-1996, the V4P package was revised with RPO GU6 3.42 gears with the new more powerful RPO LT1 260 horsepower (190 kW) V8, and HD 4L60E transmission with unique accumulators to shift smoother with the shorter rear axle gearing.

Transmissions:

  • 1993 4L60
  • 1994–1996 4L60E
Engines
Displacement Power Torque
350 cu in (5.7 L) L05 V8 185 hp (138 kW) 304 lb·ft (412 N·m)
350 cu in (5.7 L) LT1 V8 260 hp (190 kW) 330 lb·ft (450 N·m)
Production Figures[5]
Year Units
1993 31,773
1994 27,473
1995 16,180
1996 15,109
Total Production = 90,535

1998-1999 Edit

99' Fleetwood Limited

1999 Fleetwood Limited exterior.

99' Fleetwood Limited Rear

1999 Fleetwood Limited interior.

The 1998/99 Cadillac Fleetwood Limited was built by the Superior Coach Company (Accubuilt) in Lima, Ohio. Superior took a regular production 1998/99 Cadillac De Ville and stretched out one foot in length. It was priced at around $52,000. Exactly 314 were produced in 1998 and 467 were produced in 1999 for a total of 781.

Film Edit

Five Cadillac Fleetwood Seventy-Fives, a Cadillac Fleetwood Brougham and a Cadillac Fleetwood Station Wagon are stolen in the 1974 film Gone in 60 seconds.

In the 1971 film 'Get Carter', starring Michael Caine, Eric can be seen chauffeuring the rich gamblers to Kinnear's house in a maroon second generation Fleetwood, which stands out against the British countryside. The car is seen again at the end of the film as Eric parks by the coal staithes.

See alsoEdit

References Edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Cadillac Fleetwood Information". Cadillac Owners & Enthusiasts Online. Retrieved on 2010-10-23.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 "1976 Fleetwood Brougham d'Elegance". Liberty software. Retrieved on 2010-10-21.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Haukap, Anthony. "1993-96 Cadillac Fleetwood Brougham". Retrieved on 2010-10-23.
  4. "http://consumerguideauto.howstuffworks.com/ 1993-1996 Cadillac Fleetwood: Full Review". Consumerguideauto.howstuffworks.com (2006-10-04). Retrieved on 2011-06-24.
  5. The Encyclopedia of American Cars, 2006 Edition
  • Arthur St. Antoine (April 1989), "Cadillac Fleetwood Road Test", Car and Driver 34(10): 55–61. 

External linksEdit

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