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International Harvester Company
Successor Navistar International Corporation
Case IH
Founded Canton, Illinois, USA (1902)
Headquarters Warrenville, Illinois (Present Location)
Industry Agricultural, Automotive
Products Farm Machinery


International B 614

International B614 at Bromyard show 2008

International B250 at Sandbach

An International B250 at Sandbach Festival of Transport 2008

International 706 at Holcot

An International 706 at Holcot Steam Rally 2008

International Harvester Company (IHC or IH; now Navistar International Corporation was an agricultural machinery, construction equipment, vehicle, commercial truck, and household and commercial products manufacturer. It was the result of a 1902 merger between the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company and Deering Harvester Company, along with three smaller agricultural equipment firms: Milwaukee; Plano; and Warder, Bushnell, and Glessner (manufacturers of Champion brand). The "International Harvester" Company sold off the Agricultural division in 1985 to Case and later renamed the rest of the company to become the "Navistar International Corporation".

HistoryEdit

FoundationEdit

The roots of International Harvester can be traced back to the 1830s, when Cyrus Hall McCormick, an inventor from Virginia, finalized his version of a horse-drawn reaper. The reaper was demonstrated in tests in 1831 and was patented by Cyrus in 1834. Together with his brother, McCormick moved to Chicago in 1847 and started the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company. The McCormick reaper sold well, partially as a result of their savvy and innovative business practices. Their products came onto the market just as the development of railroads offered wide distribution to distant market areas. He developed marketing and sales techniques, developing a vast network of trained salesmen able to demonstrate operation of the machines in the field.

McCormick died in Chicago, with his company passing on to his son, Cyrus McCormick, Jr. In 1902, the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company and Deering Harvester Company, along with three smaller agricultural equipment firms (Milwaukee; Plano; and Warder, Bushnell, and Glessner (manufacturers of Champion brand)) merged to create the International Harvester Company.

Steady GrowthEdit

UK ProductionEdit

Downfall and endingEdit

In 1979 IH named a new CEO, who was determined to improve profit margins and drastically cut ballooning costs. Unprofitable model lines were terminated, and factory production curtailed. By the end of the year, IH profits were at their highest in 10 years, but cash reserves were still too low. Union members became increasingly irate over production cutbacks and other cost-cutting measures. In the spring and summer of 1979, IH began short-term planning for a strike that seemed inevitable. Then on November 1, IH announced figures showing that president and chairman Archie McCardell received a $1.8 million (in 1979 values) bonus. McCardell sought overtime, work rule, and other changes from the UAW, which led to a strike on November 2, 1979.[1]

Soon after, the economy turned unfavorable, and IH faced a financial crisis. The strike lasted approximately six months. When it ended, IH had lost almost $600 million (in 1979 value; over $2 billion today).[2]

By 1981 the company's finances were at their lowest point ever. The strike, accompanied by the economy and internal corporate problems, had placed IH in a hole that had only a slim way out.[3] Things only got worse until 1984, when the bitter end came.

International Harvester, following long negotiations, agreed to sell selected assets of its agricultural products division to Tenneco, Inc. on November 26, 1984. Tenneco had a subsidiary, J.I. Case, that manufactured tractors, but lacked the full line of farm implements that IH produced (combines, cotton pickers, tillage equipment etc.)

Following the merger, tractor production at Harvester's Rock Island, Illinois Farmall Works ceased in May 1985. Production of the new Case IH tractors moved to the J.I. Case Tractor Works in Racine, Wisconsin. Production of IH Axial-Flow combines continued at the East Moline, Illinois combine factory. Harvester's Memphis Works in Memphis, Tennessee was closed and cotton picker production was moved.

The truck and engine divisions remained, and in 1986 Harvester changed the corporate name to Navistar International Corporation (Harvester had sold the International Harvester name and the IH symbol to Tenneco Inc. as part of the sale of its agricultural products division). Navistar International Corporation continues to manufacture medium- and heavy-duty trucks, school buses, and engines under the International brand name.[2]

FactoriesEdit

[4]

Agricultural Equipment GroupEdit

  • North American Operations
    • Canton, Illinois
    • East Moline, Illinois
    • Farmall, Rock Island, Illinois
    • Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    • Louisville, Kentucky
    • Memphis, Tennessee
    • Saltillo, Mexico

Payline GroupEdit

  • North American Operations
    • Crandiac, Canada
    • Gulfport, Mississippi
    • Libertyville, Illinois
    • Melrose Park, Illinois
  • Other Operations
    • Doncaster, Wheatley Hall, England
    • Yumbo Chauffailles, France
    • Yumbo Genas, France
    • Heidelberg, Germany
    • Christchurch, New Zealand
  • Joint Ventures
    • Komatsu Intl. Mfg. Co, Ltd. (Kimco), Japan
    • MAQUINARIA Hidraulica Mexicana, S.A., Mexico

Solar TurbinesEdit

    • 4 Plants in San Diego, California
    • Superior Gear, Gardena, California

Truck GroupEdit

  • North American Operations
    • Chatham, Ontario, Canada
    • Columbus, Ohio
    • Emeryville, California
    • Fort Wayne, Indiana
    • Pacific Truck & Trailer, N Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    • San Leandro, California
    • Springfield, Ohio Body Plant
    • Springfield, Ohio Assembly Plant
    • Springfield, Ohio Stamping Plant
    • Shadyside, Ohio Stamping Plant
    • Urbana, Ohio Wiring Plant
    • Wagoner, Oklahoma
  • Other Operations
    • Dandenong, Australia
    • Seddon Olkham, England
    • Seddon Preston, England
    • Chirstchurch, New Zealand
    • Pasig, Phillippines
    • Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
  • Joint Ventures
    • Fabricas Autotransporte Mexicana, S.A. (FAMSA), Mexico
    • Industria Venezolana de Maquinarias, C.A. (INDEMACA), Venezuela
    • Turk Otomotiv Endustrilen A.S. (TOE), Turkey
    • Van Doorfne’s Bedrijfswagenfabriek DAF B.V., Netherlands
  • Components Group
    • Engine Division
      • Indianpolis, Indiana
      • Melrose Park, Illinois
      • Neuss, Germany
    • Foundry Division
      • Indianapolis, Indiana
      • Louisville, Kentucky
      • Memphis, Tennessee
      • Waukesha, Wisconsin
    • Precisions Products Division
      • West Pullman, Illinois

In addition, there were several ReNewing Centers and Parts Distribution Centers

Divisions and productsEdit

International 660 front

International 660 in rural Saskatchewan

AgricultureEdit

IH muck spreader at Bath 2009 - IMG 4960

A restored example of an IH muck spreader at Somerset Tractor Show 2009

The International Harvester Agricultural Division was by far the biggest and best known IH subsidiary. When IH sold their ag division to Tenneco in 1985, the International Harvester name and "IH" logo, went with it.

One of the first early products (besides the harvesting equipment that McCormick and Deering had been making prior to the merger) from the newly created International Harvester Company was the Traction Truck: a truck frame manufactured by Morton Traction Truck Company (later bought IHC) with an IHC engine mounted on it.

From 1902 when IH was formed to the early 1920s, the McCormick and Deering dealerships kept their original brands unique, with Mogul tractors sold at McCormick dealers, and Titan tractors at Deering dealerships, due to the still present competitiveness of the former rivals.

The early tractorsEdit

File:1911 IHC Mogul tractor.jpg
McCormick-Deering (1937), Bangor, ME IMG 2515

1937 McCormick-Deering tractor on display at the Cole Land Transportation Museum in Bangor, Maine

IH produced a range of massive gas-powered farm tractors under both the Mogul and Titan brands. These tractors had varied success but the trend going into the mid-teens of the 1900s was "small" and "cheap".

The first important tractors from IH were the model 10-20 and 15-30. Introduced in 1915, the tractors (which were comparatively smaller than their predecessors) were primarily used as traction engines to pull ploughs and for belt work on threshing machines. The 10-20 and 15-30 both had separate, but similar, Mogul and Titan versions.

IHC did like many companies do to this day, and that was to purchase a number of smaller companies to incorporate their products into the IH dealer range. P&O Plowing and Chattanooga Plow (US spelling) were purchased in 1919. Other brand names they incorporated were Keystone, D.M. Osborne, Kemp, Meadows, Sterling, Weber, Plano, Champion, and the list goes on and on.

In 1924, IH introduced the Farmall tractor, a smaller general-purpose tractor, to fend off competition from the Ford Motor Company's Fordson tractors. The Farmall was the first tractor in the United States to incorporate a tricycle-like design (or row-crop front axle), which could be used on tall crops such as cotton and maize. Following the introduction of the Farmall, IH introduced several similar looking "F Series" models that offered improvements over the original design (the original model became known as the "Regular").

In 1932 IH produced their first diesel engine, introduced in the McCormick-Deering TD-40 crawler. This engine started on gasoline, then switched over to diesel fuel. Diesel engines of this era were difficult to start in cold weather, and the gasoline allowed the engine to start easily and thoroughly warm up before making the switch to diesel in all weather conditions. In 1935 this engine was put in the WD-40, becoming the world's first diesel tractor on wheels.

The letter and standard seriesEdit

Summit New Jersey car show Sept 2013 6 red tractor McCormick Farmall

A McCormick Farmall tractor.

For model year 1939, industrial designer Raymond Loewy was hired to design a new line of tractors. The sleek look, combined with other new features, created what is known as the Farmall "letter series" (A, B, BN, C, H and M) and the McCormick-Deering "standard series" (W-4, W-6 and W-9). The tractors were updated to the "super" series in the early fifties (with the exception of the A, which became a "super" in 1947, and the B and BN, which were discontinued in 1948) and received several improvements. Many of these tractors (especially the largest: the H, M and W models) are still in operation on farms today. Especially desirable are the diesel-powered MD, WD-6 and WD-9. These tractors carried forward the unique gasoline start diesel concept of the WD-40.

Main article: Farmall for model details.

The letter and standard series of tractors was produced until 1954, and was a defining product in IH history.

For 1955 in IH tractors, the numbered "hundred-series" was offered. Although given slightly different looks and few new features, they were still updates to the models introduced in 1939. The only new tractor in the 1955 lineup is the 300 Utility. In 1957 IH gave the tractor lineup another update by increasing power in some models, adding a new 230 Utility model, and adding new white paint to the grill and sides and new number designations were given. This improved sales at the time, but IH's inability to change and update was already showing.[5]

60 Series recallEdit

In July 1958, IH started a major campaign to introduce a new line of tractors that many dealers hoped would turn around slumping sales. At the Hinsdale, Illinois Testing Farm, IH entertained over 12,000 dealers from over 25 countries. IH showed off their new "60" series of tractors: including the big, first of their kind, six-cylinder 460 and 560 tractors. But the joy of the new line of tractors was short lived. One of the first events that would eventually lead to the downfall of IH presented itself in 1959. In June of that year, IH recalled the 460, 560, and 660 tractors: final drive components had failed. IH, who wanted to be the first big-power manufacturer, had failed to drastically update the final drives on the new six-cylinder tractors. These final drives were essentially unchanged from 1939 and would fail rapidly under the stress of the more powerful 60-series engines. IH's competitors took advantage of the recall, and IH would lose customers in the ensuing months, with many customers moving to John Deere's New Generation of Power tractors introduced in 1960.

1960sEdit

Throughout the 1960s IH introduced new tractors and new sales techniques. As producing tractors was the lifeblood of the company, IH would have to remain competitive in this field. They both succeeded and failed at this goal. But farming was about to change, and IH and its competitors were in for a bumpy ride. In 1963 IH introduced the 73 hp (54 kW) 706 and 95 hp (71 kW) 806 tractors. in 1964 IH made its 4 millionth tractor, an 806. In 1965 IH introduced its first 100 hp (75 kW) two-wheel-drive tractor, the 1206. Another option became available in 1965 for the 706, 806 and the new 1206: a factory-installed cab (made by Stopler Allen Co.). This cab is often called the "Ice Cream Box" cab due to its shape. The cab could be equipped with a fan and heater. By 1967, over 100,000 models 706, 806 and 1206 were built. The 276 International harvester was also built at this period of time becoming popular for smaller farms with tighter lanes and fields due to mobility and weight making the 276 a popular seller boosting International harvester's slim profits.

1967 saw the introduction of the "56" series tractors as replacements for the successful and popular "06" series. These new "56s" were bigger and more powerful than the "06s". The new models included the 65 hp (48 kW) 656, 76 hp (57 kW) 756, the 101 hp (75 kW) 856 and the 116 hp (87 kW) 1256. The "ice cream box" cab was still an option. In 1969 IH introduced the 1456 Turbo at 131 hp (98 kW). Also that year, the 91 hp (68 kW) 826 was introduced with the option of gearshift or hydrostatic transmissions. The "ice cream box" cab was dropped and replaced with the new "custom" cab made by Exel Industries, which could be equipped with factory air-conditioning, heat and an AM radio. Another milestone for IH was the 1970 introduction of the 1026 Hydro which was basically a hydrostatic version of the 1256, at that time the most powerful hydrostatic transmission tractor made in the US at 114 hp (85 kW).

1970sEdit

In 1971 IH introduced the 66 series line. The new models included the 78 hp (58 kW) 766, the 101 hp (75 kW) 966, the 125 hp (93 kW) 1066 turbo, the 145 hp (108 kW) 1466 Turbo, and the 145 hp (108 kW) 1468 V-8. The 130 hp (97 kW) 4166 4WD was also introduced. The 966 and 1066 were available with Hydro or gearshift transmissions and the choice of two-post ROPs or two different cabs, the "custom" and the "deluxe". Both could be equipped with A/C, heat, and AM-FM radios.

In 1972 the 666 replaced the long-running 656, the 150 hp (110 kW) 1568 V8 replaced the 1468, and the 160 hp (120 kW) 1566 and the 163 hp (122 kW) 4366 4WD were introduced. Also later that year, four-post ROPs replaced two-post; The "custom" cab was dropped and the "deluxe" cab was now painted red instead of white. Due to horsepower confusions the 966 and 1066 Hydro models were restriped; the Hydro 100 and the 666 Hydro became the Hydro 70. On February 1, 1974 at 9:00 am, the 5 millionth tractor came off the assembly line at the Farmall Plant in Illinois. IH was the first tractor manufacturer to accomplish this.[6] Also in 1973, IH officially dropped the "Farmall" name from its tractor. This ended an era that began with the first Farmall "Regular" back in 1924.

The 230 hp (170 kW) 4568 V8 4WD was introduced in 1975. In 1976 the entire tractor line got a new paint job and decal pattern. No longer were the side panels all white with chrome and black decals: they were now all red with a black striped sticker. This was done to clear inventory for the forthcoming "Pro Ag Line".

In September 1976 IH released their 86 series "Pro Ag Line". The models included the 80 hp (60 kW) 786, the 90 hp (67 kW) 886, the 101 hp (75 kW) 986, the 104 hp (78 kW) 186 Hydro, the 135 hp (101 kW) 1086, the 146 hp (109 kW) 1486 and the 161 hp (120 kW) 1586. These new tractors had a new cab dubbed the "Control Center" that came standard with A/C, heat, and several radio/CB options. The driver sat well ahead of the rear axle and the fuel tank was mounted behind the cab over the rear axle. This increased balance and ride. Also in 1976, the 62 hp (46 kW) 686 along with the "86" series four-wheel-drives were introduced, including the 4186, 4586, and 4786.

In 1977 International Harvester introduced the first Axial-Flow rotary combine. This machine, produced at East Moline, Illinois, was the first generation of over 30 years of Axial-Flow combines.

In 1979 IH introduced two all-new tractors: the 3388 and 3588, known as the 2+2 4wd line. These tractors were the result of taking two 1086 rear ends and hooking them together with a transfer case. A year later, the 3788 was introduced. Despite the fact these tractors performed well in the field, they never sold well.


1980sEdit

As the 1980s began, IH was ready to climb from its own depression and become a leader once more. IH would face a stable economy, yet it would face an unknown fate. In September 1981, IH announced at a dealership meeting the new "50 Series" of tractors, which included the 136 hp (101 kW) 5088, the 162 hp (121 kW) 5288 and the 187 hp (139 kW) 5488. IH also released the "30 series", which included the 81 hp (60 kW) 3088, the 90 hp (67 kW) 3288 the 112 hp (84 kW) 3488Hydro and the 113 hp (84 kW) 3688. These new tractors would prove once again that IH had the innovation to come out on top. Designed and styled by IH industrial designer Gregg Montgomery, whose firm (Montgomery Design International) later designed the Case IH "Magnum" series tractors, the new stylish design of the "50 Series and 30 series would change the look of tractors from that time forward. IH spent over $29 million to develop this new series, and the result was the last great lineup of tractors from International Harvester.

There were many technology-related innovations in the new series. A computer monitoring system ("Sentry") was developed, and IH became the first manufacturer to add a computer to a farm tractor. Other innovations included a "z" shift pattern, an 18-speed synchronized transmission, a forward air flow cooling system which sucked air from above the hood and blew it out the front grille, "Power Priority" 3-pump hydraulic system, color-coded hydraulic lines and controls, and a new rear-hitch system. The 50 Series had an unprecedented three-year or 2,500-hour engine and drive-train warranty, which would later become an industry standard. Although no new sales records were set, IH sold a respectable amount of these tractors during its short production time. IH also released the "60 series 2+2s" and planned on making the "Super70 series" 2+2s but only a handful of these exist today. On May 14, 1985 the last IH tractor rolled off the factory line, a 5488 FWA.

IH was well into the development of a new line of tractors that would revolutionize the ways of farming when the sale of the agricultural products division was announced. Many of these new features would find their way into the new series of MAGNUM tractors introduced by Case IH in 1987.[6]

In the late 1970s IH entered a deal with Spain's Enasa to build diesel engines there as Internacional de Motores. After a downturn in the market coupled to problems with Spain's entry into the EEC threatened the profitability of this project, International Harvester withdrew in 1982.[7] In return for being allowed to escape all conditions of the joint venture, IH lost their up front investment in the engine plant and ended up selling British truck manufacturer Seddon Atkinson (which had belonged to IH since 1974) to Enasa in 1983.

Brand names of the Ag divisionEdit

McCormick Deering Tractor

McCormick Deering Tractor

IH over the years used a number of brand names to market their tractor and harvesting products:

  • International (1902–1985)
  • Titan (1910–1924)
  • Mogul (1911–1924)
  • McCormick-Deering (1923–1947)
  • McCormick (1947–1958)
  • Farmall (1924–1973)
  • Fairway (1924–1938)
  • Electrall (1954–1956)

Other agricultural productsEdit

Along with the prominent tractor division, IH also sold several different types of farm related equipment. These included: balers, cultivators, combine harvesters (self-propelled and pull behind), combine heads, corn shellers, cotton pickers, manure spreaders, hay rakes, crop dusters, disk harrows, elevators, feed grinders, hammer mills, hay conditioners, milking machines, planters, mills, discs, ploughs and various miscellaneous equipment.

Also produced were twine, stationary engines, loaders, and wagons.

ElectrallEdit

In 1954, the Electrall system was introduced. It was a short-lived attempt to market electrically-operated farm equipment and accessories. The system, co-developed with General Electric, consisted of a 208V three phase alternating current generator that is connected with electric cables to the device to be powered. The generator could even power a household. A 10 KW Electrall generator was an option on the Farmall 400 tractor. The mid-mount Electrall unit installs on the Super M-TA, Super W-6TA, 400, 450 and 560 tractors equipped with the I-PTO option, and there also was a 12.5KW PTO-driven version. The possible applications of Electrall power were many, but few made it to market. The marketing materials showed a haybaler being Electrall powered. One of the more novel applications of the Electrall was a device to electrocute insects in the field at night (basically like a modern-day bug zapper, but on a larger scale).

Model RangesEdit

Main article: List of International Harvester vehicles
TractorsEdit

A few of the notable models;

MachineryEdit
International 3434 loader-Newark-IMG 3782

International 3434B tractor loader in as found condition (working)- Compressor unit from rear, exhibited at the Newark VTH show 2008

  • IH TD-8CA - 76 hp - crawler with Agri spec 3-point linkage + weights

ConstructionEdit

Main article: Payline

International also built construction machinery. Early excavators were Yumbo machines. The main construction equipment division post war expanded and was renamed the Payline division of International Harvester, incorporating the Hough company of wheeled loaders & the Drott tracked shovels. Some products were more linked with the Agriculture division such as industrial tractors and Loaders.

Models

Lawn and gardenEdit

Main article: Cub Cadet

IH branched out into the home lawn and garden business in the 1960s with its line of Cub Cadet equipment, which included riding and walk-behind lawn mowers and snow blowers. Also produced were compost shredders, rotary tillers, Cadet garden tractors, and power washers.

The Cub Cadet line was sold to MTD Products in 1981.[8]


VehiclesEdit

Main article: List of International Harvester vehicles

Light duty trucksEdit

1911 International Wagon

1911 International Harvester Auto Wagon

File:'27 International stakebed.jpg
1954 International R110 Front End

1954 R-110 series pickup

1956 international pickup

1957 A-series pickup

File:1961 IHC Travelette.jpg
File:International 1979.JPG

IH is often remembered as a maker of relatively successful and innovative “light” lines of vehicles, competing directly against the Big 3. The most common were pickup trucks. IH made light trucks from 1907 to 1975. The final light line truck was made on May 5, 1975.

IH had early success with the "Auto Buggy", which started production in February 1907. IHC later introduced the Auto Wagon, which would be renamed the Motor Truck, forerunner to the successful pickup truck. In the mid-1940s, International released their K and KB series trucks, which were more simplistic than other trucks released in that era.

One of the company's light-duty vehicles was the Travelall, which was similar in concept to the Chevrolet Suburban. The Travelette was a crew cab, available in 2 or 4 wheel drive. It was available starting in 1957, and was the first 6-passenger, 4-door truck of its time. The Scout was a small, 2-door SUV, similar to a Jeep. In 1972 the Scout became the Scout II, and in 1974 Dana 44 axles, power steering and power disk brakes became standard. After the pickups and Travelall were discontinued in 1975, the Scout Traveler and Terra became available, both with a longer wheelbase than a standard Scout II.

IH would abandon sales of passenger vehicles in 1980 to concentrate on commercial trucks and school buses. Today the pickups, Travelalls, and Scouts are minor cult orphaned vehicles. All were available as rugged four-wheel drive off-road vehicles.

The Scout & Light Truck Parts Business was sold to Scout/Light Line Distributors, Inc. in 1991.

Medium/Heavy dutyEdit

IH was an early manufacturer of medium/heavy duty trucks. Although based upon truck chassis, IH also became the leading manufacturer of the chassis portion of body-on-chassis conventional (type C) school buses. In 1962 IH offered the International Harvester Loadstar which became the premier medium-duty truck. In 1978 IH offered the International Harvester S-Series, which replaced the Loadstar in 1979.

With the truck and engine divisions remaining following the 1985 sale of the agricultural division, International Harvester Company changed their corporate name to Navistar International in 1986. Today Navistar International's subsidiary, International Truck and Engine Corporation, manufactures and markets trucks and engines under the International brand name.

The Power Stroke diesel engine, which is a trade name of Ford Motor Company, is manufactured by International Truck and Engine Corporation, for use in Ford heavy-duty trucks, vans and SUVs.

MilitaryEdit

IH manufactured light, medium, and heavy vehicles for military use. Examples include a Metro van sold to the Czechoslovakian Army in 1938, as M5 Tractors and 2.5-ton M-5H-6 trucks for the US Navy & Marines in 1942,[9] and approximately 3,500 2.5 ton M-5-6-318 cargo trucks provided mostly to Soviet Union and China.[10]

MotorhomesEdit

In the 1970s, motorhomes were manufactured using IHC engines and bare chassis. Most of the bodies were constructed of fiberglass.

Commercial VehiclesEdit

International 1940 D50 4x2 tractor Reno

International D-50 1940

The first commercial vehicles built by International Harvester were highwheeler types, the Auto Buggy and Auto Wagon, that had for a nameplate the company initials of IHC. After 1913 all trucks used the International brand name.

For a detailed list of American-built models and series see: International Trucks

Some of the notable International truck models and series;

The Power Stroke diesel engine, which is a trade name of Ford Motors, was manufactured by International Truck and Engine Corporation, for use in Ford heavy-duty trucks, vans and SUVs.

Overseas subsidiariesEdit

AustraliaEdit

UtilityEdit

International Utility 1953 (3)

1953 International Utility

Australian Army designsEdit

International Harvester Australia, a subsidiary of the US Manufacturer, had a long relationship with the Australian Army with the US designed AS series trucks in the early 1950s. The AS164 2X4 used as a tractor unit[11] and the 2X4 AS161 used as a trayback troop transport[12]

The association between International Harvester Australia and the Australian Army developed and in conjunction with the Army Design Establishment of the Australian Commonwealth Department of Supply, designed and constructed a range of trucks for the Australian Army. With body loosely based upon the design of cab 13 of the Canadian Military Pattern truck the first prototype built in 1959 was the International Truck Cargo 2½ Ton General Service, Australian No.1 Mk1.[13] which was followed by the Mk2 prototype. A variant with a mid mounted 20,000 pound winch, resulted in the first production model,[14] the Mk3 entering service in 1963 – just in time for Australia's entry into the Vietnam War.

A 5 Ton 6X6 version was to follow with 3 major variants the Truck Cargo 5 Ton with winch F1[15] which replaced the Mk3 in Vietnam service.

The F2 a tipper version[16] that replaced the International Harvester AB160 "teaspoon Tipper"[17] in both Vietnam and Borneo theatres of operations.

The F5 wrecker[18] with a lack of 4X4 2 1/2 ton trucks available because of the Vietnam War, the Mk3 was supplemented with further 4X4 production with the updated Mk4 version[19] which shared the cab with the 6X6 variants Production of The Australian No.1. range of trucks were produced until 1973. The Mk3, Mk4, F1, F2 and F5 saw service until the late 1980s.[20][21]

ACCOEdit

Old Truck With Generator Loaded Up

International ACCO

The Australian-designed and built International ACCO was first produced in 1972. The ACCO is a cab over engine type truck and has been offered in 4x2, 4x4, 6x2, 6x4 and 8x4 configuration. Engines used have been Cummins, Caterpillar, Detroit Diesel or GMC with Road-Ranger or Allison transmissions and Rockwell differentials. The ACCO range were built to order, serving private operators, fire departments, military services and municipal departments across Australia and New Zealand. The ACCO became the most popular product of International Harvester in Australia. The ACCO continues to be manufactured to date, under the ownership of Iveco.[22]

Brazilian subsidiaryEdit

"International Harvester Máquinas S.A." was established with Brazilian government support as part of a project to develop a vehicle industry there. Their first product was the International S-184 heavy truck.[23] In 1966 Chrysler purchased International's Brazilian plant.[24]

Successor companyEdit

Main article: Navistar International

With the truck and engine divisions remaining following the 1985 sale of the agricultural division, International Harvester Company changed their corporate name to Navistar International in 1986. Today Navistar International's subsidiary, International Truck and Engine Corporation, manufactures and markets trucks and engines under the International brand name.

Other products Edit

For details of other International products, such as refrigerators see: original IH article

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Loomis, Carol J. "The Strike That Rained on Archie McCardell's Parade." Fortune. May 19, 1980; Friedman, Raymond A. "Interaction Norms as Carriers of Organizational Culture: A Study of Labor Negotiations at International Harvester". Journal of Contemporary Ethnography. 18:1 (April 1989); Zimmerman, Frederick M. The Turnaround Experience: Real-World Lessons in Revitalizing Corporations. New York: McGraw–Hill, 1991. ISBN 0-07-072899-2
  2. 2.0 2.1 Leffingwell, Randy (2005). Farmall Eight Decades of Innovation. St. Paul, MN: MBI Publishing. ISBN 0-7603-2136-1. 
  3. Williams, Winston. "Long Strike Is Called Key McCardell Error." New York Times. May 4, 1982; "Workers End Six-Month Walkout." Associated Press. April 21, 1980
  4. http://www.redpowermagazine.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=66972&st=10
  5. Updike, Kenneth (2000). International Harvester Tractors 1955-1985. Osceola, WI: MBI Publishing. ISBN 0-7603-0682-6. 
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named 1955.E2.80.931985
  7. Kennett, Pat (September 1982), "Intertruck: Spain", TRUCK (London, UK: FF Publishing Ltd): 27. 
  8. "Farmall Cub • View topic - Bought a 182 Cub Cadet". Farmallcub.com. Retrieved on 2012-09-29.
  9. International Harvester M-5H-6 (G-651)
  10. IHC M-5-6x4-318, 2.5-ton, 6x4, Cargo truck
  11. "The Army Inter Chapter - AR164". REMLR. Retrieved on 2012-09-29.
  12. "The Army Inter Chapter - AS161". REMLR. Retrieved on 2012-09-29.
  13. "The Army Inter - No.1, Mk.1". REMLR. Retrieved on 2012-09-29.
  14. "The Army Inter - No.1, Mk.3". REMLR. Retrieved on 2012-09-29.
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External linksEdit



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