|Type||Subsidiary of AGCO|
|Headquarters||Duluth, Georgia, USA|
|Products||Agricultural machinery, Consumer & Commercial Equipment, Financial Services, Tractors|
Massey Ferguson Limited was a major agricultural equipment manufacturer. Formed by a merger between Massey-Harris and the Ferguson tractor company in the early 1950s, a series of financial difficulties in the 1980s led to the company downsizing and being broken up before what was left of the original firm disappeared in the 1990s. Today the company exists only as a brand name used by AGCO, but remains a major seller around the world.
The firm originated in 1847 in Newcastle, Ontario by Daniel Massey as the Newcastle Foundry and Machine Manufactures. The company began making some of the world's first mechanical threshers, first by assembling parts from the United States and eventually designing and building their own equipment. The firm was taken over and expanded by his eldest son Hart Almerrin Massey who renamed it the Massey Manufacturing Co. and in 1879 moved the company to Toronto where it soon became one of the city's leading employers. The massive collections of factories on King St. West became one of the best known features of the city. Massey expanded the company and began to sell its products internationally. Through extensive advertising campaigns he made it one of the most well known brands in Canada. It is reputed that the firm owed much of its success to Canadian tariffs that prevented the larger American firms from competing in Canada. A labour shortage throughout the country also helped to make the firm's mechanized equipment very attractive.
In 1891, Massey merged with the A. Harris, Son & Co. Ltd. to become Massey-Harris Co. and became the largest agricultural equipment maker in the British Empire. In 1910, the company opened a factory in the United States, making it one of Canada's first multinational firms. In the 1930s, it introduced the first self-propelled combine harvester. Massey-Harris also produced one of the world's first four-wheel drive tractors. Hart Massey's sons, Charles, Chester, Walter, and Fred became closely involved in the business and eventually took over its operations. They were, however, the last generation of Masseys to run the company. Other members of the family went on to do other accomplishments: Vincent Massey became Governor General of Canada and Raymond Massey became a noted actor in American films. The Massey family used their fortune to improve the city of Toronto, and many institutions, such as the University of Toronto, Upper Canada College, Crescent School, Appleby College, Massey Hall and Metropolitan United Church, were partially financed by the Masseys.
In 1953, the company merged with the Ferguson Company to become Massey-Harris-Ferguson, before finally taking on its current name in 1958. But the company soon began to decline financially. Facing increasing international competition and an agricultural sector diminishing in importance, the firm began to struggle.
In 1955, Massey purchased the Australian company Sunshine. Founded in 1915 by Hugh Victor McKay, they had tie-ups with Massey Harris for several years before MF bought them outright. The Sunshine name faded into history. Also in 1955, Massey-Harris-Ferguson signed a seven-year agreement with the Belgrade, Yugoslavian company IMT for IMT to build licensed-Massey Ferguson tractors and equipment for the Eastern European market, as well as for export elsewhere.
The Perkins Engine company was a major supplier of engines to Massey Ferguson, and they bought them out in January 1959, with Frank Perkins continuing to work for the company until 1962. Frank Perkins died in 1967. Variety Corp eventually spun Perkins off into a separate company.
In 1959, Massey bought 100% of Landini, based in Italy. Landini has built many models for Massey over the years, especially vineyard and crawler models. Massey sold 66% to ARGO SpA in 1989, some to Iseki later on, and the final portion was sold to AGCO in 2000. ARGO and AGCO still provide models to one another. Also in 1959, Massey Ferguson purchased the Standard Motor Company's tractor manufacturing facilities, which had assembled Ferguson tractors.
In 1966, Massey purchased 32% of the Spanish tractor and auto company Ebro, or Motor Iberica. Ebro had previously built Ford Tractors under license, but now began building models for Massey, and Massey models under license. Massey sold its interest to Nissan in 1980.
Starting in 1969, Massey Ferguson started producing a line of snowmobiles by the name Ski Whiz. The snowmobile line sold until 1977, when sales declined. Also in 1969, Rheinstahl Hanomag Cura SA, a joint venture partially owned by Hanomag, was purchased in Argentina. The company manufactured Hanomag tractors. After a year or so, the production was switched to Massey Ferguson tractors, and the company renamed Massey Ferguson Argentina. The Ag business of the German Hanomag was also purchased in 1969.
In the 1970s, Massey Ferguson came under the control of Conrad Black. During the late 1970s, production was relocated to a new large facility in Brantford, Ontario, Canada. In 1978 Massey Ferguson was the first to introduce an electronic three-point hitch on a tractor.
In 1973, Massey purchased the German company Eicher, and many Massey-licensed Eichers were built. They later sold their interest, and Dromson now owns the company. They then built specialized tractors for vineyards and such. In 1974, the Polish company Ursus was licensed to build Massey Ferguson tractors, and the construction plant division of Hanomag was purchased, resulting in Massey Ferguson Hanomag equipment. The Hanomag portion was eventually sold off to Komatsu in 1989.
In 1975, MF purchase White Motor Company's plant in Canton, Ohio, USA to build Perkins engines. More licensing took place in 1976 when Iran's ITMCo was added. Compact tractors began to be provided by Japan's Hinomoto/Toyosha in 1976.
In 1980, Massey Ferguson Brazil merged with Perkins Brazil to form Massey Ferguson Perkins do Brasil S.A., which was later renamed to Massey Perkins in 1984, and later Maxion S.A. in 1989. The company was sold off in 1983 to Iochpe, and later purchased from Iochpe-Maxion in 1996 by AGCO.
In 1981, Black arranged a government bail-out for the collapsing company and sold it in 1986 to a group of investors who reorganized it as Varity Corporation. The 4WD tractor plant in Des Moines, Iowa, USA was closed in 1981 with production moving to Detroit, MI and Toronto & Brantford, Ontario, Canada. Massey Ferguson Argentina was sold in 1982, as well as MF's 30% of Perkins Argentina S.A.. All 4WD production was moved to Brantford, Ontario, Canada the same year, and the Detroit tractor plant was closed in 1983, ending USA production of MF tractors.
In 1983, Variety purchased Vickers Plc's Roll-Royce Diesels International and merged it with Perkins. In 1984, rumors surfaced of the possibility of a merger with Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company. By 1985, MF purchased White Farm Equipment's combine business and technology, and then moved all combine manufacturing to Canada. In 1986, Varity spun off several money-losing divisions into an entity called Massey Combines, including the Brantford, Ontario, Canada combine plant. Massey Combines became insolvent in 1988, and its assets were re-acquired by Massey Ferguson.
McConnell Tractors purchased the 4WD tractor business in 1989, which was eventually purchased by AGCO in 1994. In 1989, MF agreed to buy Fruehauf Corp, (Kelsey-Hayes). MF began switching from Hinomoto to Iseki for their compact tractor supply, and later supplied Iseki in return with higher horsepower tractors in 1993.
In 1992, a management buyout of MF industrial created the company Fermec which finally ceased trading in 2001 when it was swallowed up by Terex. This encompassed all remaining construction equipment from Massey.
Despite some of the companies' hardships, Massey Ferguson was selling 25% more tractors than its nearest competitors at this time. In 1994, the farm equipment divisions of Varity were sold to the American AGCO Corporation who continue to use Massey-Ferguson as a product line. In August 1996, Varity merged with Lucas Automotive to become LucasVarity.
After a series of mergers and take-overs, the remains of LucasVarity were taken over by the US company TRW. Since 1962, Massey Ferguson has been the world's leading tractor brand, this may be due to the fact that Massey began to sell globally earlier than the rest of its competitors. Currently, there are more Massey tractors than any other, worldwide.[citation (source) needed]
AGCO purchased MF in 1994, and slowly began reassembling much of what had been sold off, including McConnell Tractors, Massey Ferguson Argentina, Iochpe-Maxion,Western Combine Corporation, supplier Dronningborg and other operations.
In 1953, the company merged with the Ferguson Company to become Massey-Harris-Ferguson, before finally taking on its current name in 1958.
The company shortened the name to Massey-Ferguson in 1958, and tried to consolidate the two dealer networks and product lines. Its television and radio advertising featured an upbeat jingle of a mens' chorus singing, "He's a get-up-early, keep-'em-rollin', Massey-Ferguson kind of a man." But the company soon began to decline financially. Facing increasing international competition and an agricultural sector diminishing in importance, the firm began to struggle.
In 1955, Massey purchased the Australian H.V. McKay company, manufacturers of the brand Sunshine. Hugh Victor McKay had invented the stripper harvester in 1884, the first machine to combine the functions of reaping, threshing and winnowing grain from a standing crop. McKay later established a manufacturing base at Ballarat, and then transferred to Braybrook Junction, re-named Sunshine in 1907 after the harvester's brand name. By the 1920’s the H.V. McKay Company was running the largest implement factory in the southern hemisphere covering 30.4 hectares (76 acres), and were leading the international agricultural industry through the development of the world's first self-propelled harvester in 1924.
In 1930 the H.V. McKay Company was granted exclusive Australian distribution of Massey-Harris machinery. The company was then renamed H.V. McKay Massey Harris Pty Ltd. Throughout World War II H.V. McKay Massey Harris exported over 20,000 Sunshine drills, disc harrows and binders to England to facilitate the increase in food production.
In 1959, Massey bought 100% of Landini, based in Italy. Landini has built many models for Massey over the years, especially vineyard and crawler models. Massey sold 66% to ARGO SpA in 1989, some to Iseki in 1994, and the final 9% to ARGO in 2000. ARGO and AGCO still provide models to one another.
In 1959 Perkins Engines of Peterborough, England, was purchased. Perkins having been the main diesel engine supplier for Massey Ferguson for many years. In 1990 taking over Dorman Diesels of Stafford to form Perkins Engines (Stafford) Ltd. Followed by Perkins in the 1980s also taking over Rolls Royce (Diesels) Ltd, to form Perkins engines (Shrewsbury) Ltd. Perkins was sold off in 1998 by then owner LucasVarity to Caterpillar Inc. who was a major customer for their smaller & medium power engines, Caterpillar being a major producer of large diesel engines for static and mobile application.
Ebro of SpainEdit
In 1966, Massey purchased 32% of the Spanish tractor and auto company Ebro, or Motor Iberica. Ebro had previously built Ford tractors under licence, but now began building models for Massey, and Massey models under licence. Massey sold its interest to Nissan in the 1980s, and it was later purchased by Kubota.
Conrad Black take overEdit
In the 1970s, Massey Ferguson came under the control of Conrad Black. During the late 1970s, production was relocated to a new large facility in Brantford, Ontario. In 1987 Massey Ferguson was the first to introduce an electronic control system for the three-point hitch on a tractor.
In 1973, Massey purchased the German company Eicher, and many Massey-licensed Eichers were built. They later sold their interest, and Dromson now owns the company. They now build specialized tractors for vineyards and such.
In 1981, Black donated his shares in Massey Ferguson to the employee's pension plans leading the way to a $250 million government bail-out from the Government of Canada and the Province of Ontario for the collapsing company which later renamed itself as Varity Corporation. In the mid 1980s, Varity spun off several money-losing divisions into an entity called Massey Combines Corporation. Massey Combines Corporation was headquartered in Brantford, Ontario and became insolvent on March 8, 1998, and its assets were re-acquired by Massey Ferguson.
Fermec sale Edit
In 1992, a management buyout of MF Industrial created the company Fermec, which in turn was purchased by J.I.Case in 1997. In 2001, Fermec when it was sold to the Terex corporation. This encompassed all construction equipment from Massey except for South America. (Fermec North America is still owned by J.I.Case successor CNH).
Massey Ferguson (under control of AGCO Corporation) have continued to developed a wide range of agricultural vehicles and have a large share in the market across the world especially in Europe.
The first truly wholesale tractor was the Massey Ferguson TVO which was quickly replaced by the Diesel 20. Proceeding the Diesel 20 came the Massey Ferguson 35 (a Ferguson design) and later MF 35X. These tractors were massively popular and sold well across the UK and Ireland in particular.
They then went on to develop a range of tractors, but the next huge seller was the MF135, widely popular because of its reliability and power compared with other tractors at the time.
The range was then expanded to create the Massey Ferguson 100 series. These included the MF 145, 148, 150, 165, 168, 175, 178, 185 and 188. Later came the (Massey Ferguson 500 series) MF 550, 565, 575, 590, 595. From the early 80s came the Massey Ferguson 200 series tractor, which included the MF 240, 245, 250, 255, 260, 265, 270, 275, 278, 280, 285, 290, 299.
In the mid '80s the short-lived Massey Ferguson 600 series was released. This included the 690, 690T, 695, 698 and 699. The reason for poor sale was attributed to its poor looks and cab awkwardness compared to its predecessors, by some buyers and the press.
In the late '80s, one of the greatest selling tractors of all time was released- the 300 series Massey Ferguson. Excellent power, simplicity of cab, high range of gears and components made the Massey Ferguson 300 series a roaring success especially in Europe. The range included the MF 362,375,390, 390T, 393, 394, 395, 398, and the most powerful and popular Massey Ferguson 399. Ranging from 72HP to 104HP, It was reputed that "there was nothing this tractor could not do for a farmer of that time and still to this day".
Today Massey Ferguson is one of the most widely used brands of tractors around the world. With licensing deals, it is one of the largest brands, along with John Deere. Tractors that came after the 300 series included the Massey Ferguson 4200 series, the MF 4300 series and presently the Massey Ferguson 5400 series. MF produced many tractors in between that were aimed at a more niche market including "Datatronic" and "Dynashift/Powershift" machines. These included the 3600 (early 90s), 3000 (early to mid 90s), 3100 (mid 90s), 6100 (late 90s), 6200 (late 90s/early 2000s), 8200 (late 90s/early 2000s), 6400(present), 7400(present) and 8400(present).
AGCO/Massey Ferguson factories build tractors for Challenger Equipment, Iseki and Landini, with other modern MF models being badge-engineered tractors from other manufacturers, such as ARGO, TAFE, Carraro and Iseki.
Products by SeriesEdit
- Main article: Massey Ferguson products by series
- Main article: List of Massey Ferguson tractors
- Main article: Massey Ferguson Crawler Tractors
- Main article: Massey Ferguson Combine Harvester range
- Main article: Massey Ferguson Construction
Lawn & GardenEdit
- Main article: Massey Ferguson Garden Tractors
Licensed Massey Ferguson TractorsEdit
Massey Ferguson is the most widely sold brand of agricultural machinery in the world. The brand and designs are or were licensed to a variety of companies around the world including. Some times, tractor designs have been sub-licensed to another company. An example would be Ursus using a Massey design, and licensing the tractor to SirGroh Ursus in Pakistan. Or IMT using a Massey design, and selling tractors to Marshall (as the Marshall 132) or TAFE (a MF licensee)(as the TAFE 9040).
- Agrinar - in Argentina, while not a licensee, is based in former MF factory. Early models were MF-clones, causing a lawsuit from AGCO, and a redesign by Agrinar.
- AHS - built/assembled in Turkey from CKD kits from either Pakistan or Iran
- Al Jadah - Libyan Tractor Co. joint venture in Libya
- Aslan - Aslanlar Grup, began selling in 2015 from Uzel models, built in Lüleburgaz'da, Turkey
- Baskent - built by ITMCo and sold in Turkey
- Bozok - assemble CKD kits built by Millat in Pakistan and sold in Turkey
- Ebro - Spanish company purchased and later sold by Massey Ferguson.
- Eder Derdison - ?former brand built by ITMCo under license
- Eicher - German company purchased and later sold by Massey Ferguson.
- Ekip - Turkey company assembling licensed MF built by ?? (ITMCo or Millat)
- ETRAG - Algeria company in j.v. with MF (49%) to build MF tractors
- Farmwell - assembled by Samarakoon Tractor Industries Private Limited in Sri Lanka
- Four Wheel Traction - MF conversions that were built in England
- GIAD - assembled by Giad Automotive Industry Co in Sudan.
- Hars - Turkey - licensed-built from CKD kits from ITMCo
- Hattat - won license in Turkey to build MF after Uzel lost the license.
- IMT - (1955-??) Industriya Masina I.Traktoru in Yugoslavia, now Serbia.
- ITMCo - Iran Tractor Mfg Co in Iran. Own or sell under Baskent, Eder Derdison, Hars, ITM, LSG, MTF, Motira, TajIran, UgIran and VenIran names.
- Landini - Italian company purchased and later sold by Massey Ferguson.
- LSG - assembled in Argentina from licensed MF by ITMCo
- Mavci - Turkey - licensed-built from CKD? kits from ?? (ITMCo, TAFE or Millat)
- McConnell-Marc - USA company that purchased the rights to the Massey Ferguson 4000 series tractors, selling them under their name and to MF to market as MF. Company later sold to AGCO.
- Mehmet Simseker - Turkey - licensed-built from CKD? kits from ?? (ITMCo, TAFE or Millat)
- MTF - built by ITMCo from licensed MF by ITMCo
- Millat - Licensee, Millat Tractors in Pakistan.
- Moffett - England-based company that built tractors based on MF skid-units
- Motira - assembled in Zimbabwe
- Quattrino - French brand based on Massey Ferguson 3120 tractors, later sold as Valtrac
- Perkis - Turkey built under license from Ursus based on MF designs
- Schindler - MF conversions that were built in Germany
- Selene - MF conversions that were built in Italy
- Smallholder - license built/reconditioned tractors that were built in England, formerly Sutcliff
- STMC - (Saudi Tractor Manufacturing Company Limited) in Saudi Arabia is a joint venture between E.A. Juffali & Brothers and Massey Ferguson
- Super Star - based on MF, built in Turkey
- Sutcliff - license built/reconditioned tractors that were built in England, later became Smallholder
- TAFE - assemble and license designs, in India. Partially owned by AGCO.
- TajIran - 49% owned by ITMCo in Tajikistan, assembles licensed MF
- Tractores BM - Uruguay company building MF-clones
- Ursus - former licensee in Poland.
- Uzel - former licensee in Turkey, continued to build MF-clones after loosing license. Now bankrupt. Has plans to return in 2016
- Valtrac - French brand using Massey Ferguson components; began as Quattrino
- VenIran - joint venture between Iran Tractor Mfg Co. and Corporation Venezuala de Guayana in Venezuela. Assembles tractors under license.
- Zadrugar - of Yugoslavia. Built the Massey Ferguson 35 under license.
- Yesterday's Tractors - A Brief History of Tractors in Australia
- Ford Iberica - Ebro
- TEREX Construction
- The Massey Legacy pt 1 & 2 by J.Farnworth
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