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Meccano
Meccano logo (large)
Type Construction set
Inventor Frank Hornby
Company Meccano Ltd
Country United Kingdom
Availability 1901–present
Official website
Meccano model showmans engine - at Scorton NY 09 - IMG 2170

A detailed working model of a showmans road locomotive in the Models tent at Scorton Working Day - North Yorkshire 2009

Meccano is a model construction system comprising re-usable metal strips, plates, angle girders, wheels, axles and gears, with nuts and bolts to connect the pieces. It enables the building of working models and mechanical devices.

Meccano was invented in 1901 in England by Frank Hornby and manufactured by the British company, Meccano Ltd, between 1908 and 1980. It is now manufactured in France and China.

HistoryEdit

Meccano logo (large)

Meccano logo, created by Meccano Ltd.

For early Meccano history, see Frank Hornby.

The first Meccano setsEdit

In 1901 Frank Hornby, a clerk from Liverpool, England, invented and patented a new toy called "Mechanics Made Easy" that was based on the principles of mechanical engineering.[1] It was a model construction kit consisting of perforated metal strips, plates and girders, with wheels, pulleys, gears, shaft collars and axles for mechanisms and motion, and nuts and bolts to connect the pieces. The perforations were at a standard ½ inch (12.7 mm) spacing, the axles were 8-gauge, and the nuts and bolts used 5/32 inch BSW threads. The only tools required to assemble models were a screwdriver and spanners (wrenches). It was more than just a toy: it was educational, teaching basic mechanical principles like levers and gearing.

The parts for Hornby's new construction kit were initially supplied by outside manufacturers, but as demand began to exceed supply, Hornby setup his own factory in Duke Street, Liverpool. As the construction kits gained in popularity they soon became known as Meccano and went on sale across the world. In September 1907, Hornby registered the Meccano trade mark, and in May 1908, he formed Meccano Ltd. To keep pace with demand, a new Meccano factory was built in Binns Road, Liverpool in 1914, which became Meccano Ltd's headquarters for the next 60 years. Hornby also established Meccano factories in France, Spain and Argentina. The word "Meccano" was thought to have been derived from the phrase "Make and Know".[2]

The first construction sets had parts that were rather crudely made: the metal strips and plates had a tinplate finish, were not rounded at the ends and were not very sturdy. But manufacturing methods were improving all the time and by 1907 the quality and appearance had improved considerably: the metal strips were now made of thicker steel with rounded ends and were nickel-plated, while the wheels and gears were machined from brass.

The first sets under the new Meccano name were numbered 1 to 6. In 1922 the No. 7 Meccano Outfit was introduced, which was the largest set of its day, and the most sought after because of its model building capabilities and prestige.

In 1926, to mark the 25th anniversary of his patent, Hornby introduced "Meccano in Colours" with the familiar red and green coloured Meccano pieces. Initially plates were a light red and items like the braced girders were a pea-green. However, the following year strips and girders were painted dark green, the plates Burgundy red, while the wheels and gears remained brass. In 1934 the Meccano pieces changed colour again: the strips and girders became gold while the plates were changed to blue with gold criss-cross lines on them, but only on one side, the reverse remaining plain blue. This new colour scheme was only available in Great Britain until the end of the Second World War in 1945. The old red and green sets were still produced for the export market and were re-introduced in Great Britain after the war.

In 1958 the colours were changed slightly to what become known as 'light red and green' but this incarnation had the shortest lifespan as the colours changed dramatically in 1964 to the black and yellow colour scheme. However, this light red and green period did see the introduction of about 90 new parts, more modern packaging, a new cabinet was introduced for the number 10 set, the first plastic parts were introduced, and the "exploded diagram" instructions made their debut.

Meccano No7 Instructions (front)

Instruction book for the 1956 Meccano No. 7 and 8 Outfits, showing a model of a walking drag line excavator built with the red and green Meccano pieces of the time.

Meccano's heydayEdit

IMG 2171Meccano mobile stone crusher - at Scorton NY 09 -

A Meccano model of a mobile stone crusher and screening plant.

In 1934 the nine basic Meccano outfits (numbered 00 to 7) were replaced by eleven outfits, labelled 0, A to H, K and L, the old No. 7 Outfit becoming the L Outfit. This L Outfit is often regarded as the best of the largest Meccano outfits. In 1937 the alphabetical outfit series was replaced by a numeric series, 0 to 10, the L Outfit being replaced by the smaller No. 10 Outfit. Although reduced in size from the L Outfit, the No. 10 Outfit became Meccano's flagship set and remained relatively unchanged until it was discontinued a half-century later in 1992. Accessory sets were retained, numbered 1A to 9A, that converted a set to the next in the series (for example, accessory set 6A would convert a No. 6 set to a No. 7 set). As had been the case from early days, Meccano Ltd would also supply individual Meccano parts to complement existing sets.

World War II interrupted the production of Meccano in England when the Binns Road factory converted to manufacturing for the war effort. The Korean War in 1950 also disrupted production due to a metal shortage and it was not until the mid-1950s that Meccano production returned to normal with new parts being added to all the sets.

In 1955 outfits 00 to 10 as well as conversion sets 00A to 9A were available.[3] In 1961 a Mechanisms Outfit and a Gears Outfit were added to the range,[4] and in 1962 outfit 00 was withdrawn.[5]

TakeoversEdit

20030514 160101-Meccano set-rt1

1970s No. 2 Meccano set

In the early 1960s Meccano Ltd experienced financial problems and was purchased by Lines Bros Ltd (Tri-ang) in 1964. In an attempt to redefine Meccano's image, the colour scheme was changed again, this time to yellow and black plates, with silver strips and girders. The silver was soon replaced by zinc in 1967 when it was found that the silver pieces marked easily. The colours of yellow and black were chosen because they were the colours typically used by most large construction vehicles of the day.

In 1970 electronic parts were introduced for the first time and the current black coloured plates were changed to blue. The range of sets was reduced by one with the deletion of the old No. 9 set and the renumbering of the old No. 0 to 8 sets to No. 1 to 9. The No. 10 set remained unchanged.[6]

Lines Brothers went into voluntary liquidation in 1971 and Airfix Industries purchased Meccano Ltd in 1972. In 1973 outfits 1 to 10 were still available, but new kits were added: Army Multikit, Highway Multikit, Plastic Meccano, Pocket Meccano and two Clock Kits.[7]

In 1978 the range of Meccano sets was further reduced and changed with the replacement of the No. 2 to 8 sets by six completely new sets, labelled A and 1 to 5. The old No. 9 and 10 sets were left largely unchanged. By 1980 Airfix themselves were in financial trouble and, in an attempt to cut their losses, they shut down the Binns Road factory, bringing to an end the manufacture of Meccano in England. Meccano was, however, still being manufactured in France, although under the ownership of General Mills, a United States toy manufacturer since 1972.

The new MeccanoEdit

In 1981 General Mills bought what was left of Meccano Ltd UK, giving it now complete control of the Meccano franchise. All the existing Meccano sets were scrapped and a totally new range of sets were designed for production in France called "Meccano Junior". These new sets included many plastic parts and could only build small models. Thus Meccano's concept of "Engineering in Miniature" was now completely lost and it was reduced to nothing more than a toy.

Meccano motorcycle3

Meccano model motorcycle built with the Meccano Motion System 50 set.

In 1985 General Mills sold out to a French accountant, Marc Rebibo, and, once again, all existing Meccano sets were scrapped. The "Meccano Junior" sets were replaced with three "Premier Meccano" sets and two "Motor" sets (including a six-speed motor) were introduced. Due to demand, the old Meccano No. 5 to 10 sets from 1981 were re-introduced.

In 1989 Marc Rebibo sold what remained of Meccano to Dominique Duvauchelle. Allen head zinc plated steel bolts replaced the original slot-headed brass-plated bolts and the "Plastic Meccano Junior" sets were brought back. With younger model builders in mind, many theme sets were also introduced, including a "Construction and Agricultural" series, "Space" models and "Dynamic" sets. The old-style No. 5 to 10 sets remained in production until 1992.

In 1994 additional theme sets were introduced and a pull-back friction motor was added to the Plastic Meccano System. In 1996 "Action Control" sets with infrared controls were added and 1999 saw the introduction of a "Motion System" range of sets that changed the look of Meccano completely. There were six one-model sets, two five-model sets, and five new sets numbered 10 to 50, the 20 to 50 sets being motorized. A complete change from the normal practice (sticking to a single majority colour) was that every set had its own colour scheme, often in bright neon colours.

In 2000 Nikko, a Japanese toy manufacturer, purchased 49% of Meccano and took on its marketing internationally through its established channels for radio-controlled toys. Development and design remained with the 51% of Meccano SN, based in Calais, France. Nikko launched a successful range of new sets, including "Crazy Inventors" and the "Future Master" range. Significantly, Nikko radio control and programmable electronics started to appear in the System. However, under commercial pressure, Nikko sold its interest in the Meccano name and System back to Meccano SN, the French parent company, in August 2007.

Meccano is manufactured in France and China.

Meccano today is very different from its heyday in the 1930s to 1950s. The target market of youngsters has not changed significantly. However, the mass market, instant-appeal approach does not always satisfy serious Meccano enthusiasts. For example, it is often difficult to obtain original spares.

Many parts were introduced since the Liverpool factory closed under the French-and-Japanese running of the company. These included plastic parts, gears, electric motors and battery boxes. Metal became an expensive raw material to work with and many of the metal parts were replaced with plastic parts. Allen (hex-headed) zinc electroplated steel bolts replaced the slotted bolts. Die-hard enthusiasts from the declining height of the Meccano era are now in their 50s or 60s. Some of these Meccano modellers enthusiastically embrace the changes and new parts. However, the "purists" look down on these new parts. Some enthusiasts set self-imposed limits on using only parts deemed to be traditional and steer clear of those parts viewed as “not truly Meccano”.

Original specialist parts, such as very long (up to 2 foot) angle girders, loom shuttles, printing rollers, etc. often required for large Super Models are becoming more difficult to obtain. There are replica manufacturers who satisfy the needs of enthusiasts who build legacy models that require these parts.

The current range of Meccano electric motors are small DC types designed to run on domestic batteries. These are low-torque high-speed "can" motors. These are inexpensive and suitable for small models that a child might construct from the standard range of sets. Adult enthusiasts tend to use a wider range of high-performance motors that are better suited to powering large models. During Meccano's heyday, the electric motors available were universal wound (for use on DC or AC supplies). Particularly well known were the E020, E20R and E15R universal motors, and issued after the Second World War. These could be run from a mains transformer or, in the case of the E15R, a 12V car battery. Earlier there had been short-lived (and potentially lethal) mains motors designed for DC mains with a domestic lightbulb in series to drop the voltage, followed by motors of the post-War pattern but wound for 4.5 or 6V DC and suited to lead/acid accumulator power. These, as well as the latter accumulator are now rare if in good condition.

What has remained the same during all these years, is the Imperial ½ inch perforation spacing and the 5/32 inch nut and bolt whitworth threads. Meccano must be one of the very few products which have maintained identical standards and complete interchangeability of parts from its commercial inception in 1901 right through to the present day. Many modern models function perfectly with Meccano components that are more than 100 years old.

Some model construction kits are compatible with Meccano. One example is the Swiss brand Stokys, which has been manufactured since 1941. Their elements are mainly made of thick stable metal in order to fit to the general approach of Swiss Quality. Other examples are Exacto and Metallus.

Meccano has always had several compatible products on the market (such as X-Series Meccano, Plastic Meccano, Mogul Toys and Speed-Play). In 2007, a plastic robot named "Spykee" arrived. The robot is controlled using a WiFi interface, has a webcam and can climb stairs. It can also be controlled over the Internet and configured as a security camera. The robot is primarily packaged in a single plastic base component and comprises additional bolt-on plastic parts that are present for aesthetic purposes only. The robot base does include some standard Meccano hole spacing. By September 2008, the Spykee robot family numbers five, with each robot having different capabilities.

Compatible setsEdit

Since the 1930s, construction kits compatible with Meccano were manufactured in the Soviet Union.[citation needed] They did not have a uniform color scheme, parts could be in any color. Usually the strips and girders were not painted, and the plates could be either unpainted or painted in red, yellow, and blue. In the 1970s, plastic parts were introduced. The "Krugozor" (Russian: "Кругозор") plant in Moscow produced some sets which included electrical motors and gears. The largest set of the 1970-1980's was called "Yunostj-3" (Russian: "Юность-3") and contained about 200 parts. The "Yunostj" series were practically identical to Meccano sets with the same number[citation needed], but there is no evidence of larger sets (equivalent to No. 4 or larger) being produced. There were instructions for building 44 models. Today, many similar kits, mostly Russian and Chinese-produced, are being sold in Russia.[citation needed]

Unlike the Czech Merkur sets, the Soviet ones used mixed Metric and Imperial measurements. The spacing between holes was 12.7 mm, or 1/2 inch, the hole diameter was 4.3 mm, or 1/6 inch. The nuts and bolts included were Metric.

CapabilitiesEdit

Meccano model Steam shovel excavator

Meccano model of a steam shovel excavator powered by a restored 1929 Meccano steam engine. It was built by Chris ELS in 2004. See details at Chris's Meccano Restoration Page

With a Meccano set there was a wide range of models that could be built. Here are the models for which instructions were given in the largest set of the late 1950s, the "Outfit 10":

"Railway Service Crane", "Sports Motor Car", "Coal Tipper", "Cargo Ship", "Double Decker Bus", "Lifting Shovel", "Blocksetting Crane", "Beam Bridge", "Dumper Truck", "Automatic Gantry Crane", "Automatic Snow Loader", "4-4-0 Passenger Locomotive"

On top of these there were instruction leaflets available for:

"Combine Harvester", "The Eiffel Tower", "Showman’s Traction Engine", "Twin-Cylinder Motor Cycle Engine", "Trench Digger", "Bottom Dump Truck", "Road Surfacing Machine", "Mechanical Loading Shovel"

It has been said that the instructions sometimes contained deliberate errors to challenge the ingenuity of its users.[8] However, those involved in their production maintain such errors were accidental, and are no more common than the unintentional errors in other modelling plans.[citation needed]

Since this time, enthusiasts such as G. Maurice Morris and MW Models have taken to publishing their own model plans, ranging from small models up to large and complex machines.

In 1935 Meccano was the primary construction material used by J. B. Bratt in building several analog computers. The computers were used for several decades to calculate differential equations, and one such machine, the "Meccano Differential Analyser No. 2" survives to this day. That specific machine was used by the Allies in Operation Chastise where the computer played a critical role in planning the bombing runs for bombs that would bounce across water before colliding with and destroying German dams.[9][10]

Meccano remains a very versatile constructional medium. Just about any mechanical device can be built with it, from structures, to complex working cranes, automatic gearboxes or extremely accurate clocks. Meccano is frequently used to prototype new ideas and inventions. Model realisation using Meccano is limited only by the imagination and ingenuity of the builder.

In 2002 and 2005 (respectively), Tim Robinson constructed working Meccano models of Charles Babbage's Difference Engines No. 1 and No. 2.

The largest Meccano model ever built (by size) was a giant Ferris Wheel, made by Meccano S.A. in France in 1990. It was modelled after the original 1893 wheel built by George Ferris at the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago and was shipped to the United States to promote "Erector Meccano" after Meccano S.A. had bought out the "Erector" trade name and began selling Meccano sets in the U.S.A. It went on display in New York City after which it was purchased by Ripley's Believe It or Not! and put on display in their St. Augustine, Florida museum. The model is 6.5 metres (21.3 ft) high, weighs 544 kilograms (1,200 pounds), was made from 19,507 pieces, 50,560 nuts and bolts, and took 1,239 hours to construct.[11] At this mass and size, some deviation from Meccano-only parts was a necessity, to prevent it collapsing (mainly in the structural spokes). The largest model by mass would certainly be in contention but some models have topped 600 kg.[citation needed]

PopularityEdit

Meccano Centennial Poster

Meccano Centennial poster and sticker[12] issued in 2001 to celebrate one hundred years of Meccano. It shows the Meccano blocksetting crane with a portrait of Frank Hornby, Meccano's inventor.

Frank Hornby launched the Meccano Guild in 1919, to encourage boys of all ages -as well as early clubs- to become part of a central organisation, which oversaw club formation, and set guidelines for club proceedings. The Meccano Magazine was used as a means to keep Guild clubs informed of each others activities (as well as encourage the sales of Meccano).

The International Society of Meccanomen was founded in 1989 in England, nine years after the Liverpool factory closed. This organization is considered the modern replacement of the Guild system and now has some 600 members in over 30 countries.

Today, over a hundred years since its inception, there are thousands of Meccano enthusiasts worldwide, many clubs and hundreds of websites covering Meccano history, model building instructions and nostalgia. Individuals and companies worldwide still manufacture parts, some long out of production. There are annual Meccano exhibitions around the world, notably in France (at a different venue around May each year) and at Skegness in England (around July every year). Many notable shows also take place in South Africa, Australia and New Zealand each year to name a few.

Publications devoted fully or in part to Meccano included Meccano Magazine from 1916 to 1981, and numerous Special Model Leaflets aimed at serious enthusiasts, on how to construct very large, complex models and machines. Some models use many more parts than an entire Set 10. The original large models from the 1930s model leaflets are called the Meccano Super Models, often popular at Meccano and other model engineering exhibitions and sometimes used as nostalgic showpieces by retailers. Modern dedicated publications include: Constructor Quarterly, The International Meccanoman and the ModelPlans series of instructions. These feature large model instructions and ideas for enthusiasts. There are also a myriad of club-generated periodicals, featuring Meccano content and keeping enthusiasts in touch.

The careers many people chose were influenced by their experience and knowledge gained from using the product.[13]

Other modeling 'Toys' Edit

See alsoEdit

model related pages


ReferencesEdit

  1. "Hornby's 1901 patent". Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  2. O'Shea, Patrick. "What is Meccano?". Johannesburg Meccano Hobbyists. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  3. (1955) Instruktion för bygglåda Nr. 2 (in Swedish). Meccano Ltd. 
  4. (1961) Meccano The Thrill of Build-It-Yourself. Meccano Ltd. 
  5. (1962) Contents of Meccano outfits 1962. Meccano Ltd. 
  6. (1971) Book of Models outfit 2. Meccano Ltd. 
  7. (1973) Meccano sarjat ja uutuudet 1973 (outfits and novelties) (in Finnish). Helsinki, Finland: Ky Lelumyynti. 
  8. James May's Top Toys. UKTV. Dave. 2008-12-17.
  9. O’Neill, Rob. "Meccano ‘Dam Busters’ computer stars at MOTAT". Computerworld. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  10. Irwin, William. "The Differential Analyser Explained". The New Zealand Federation of Meccano Modellers. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  11. "Greatest Meccano Models of the Twentieth Century". The New Zealand Federation of Meccano Modellers. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  12. It is not a postage stamp.
  13. "Harry Kroto Nobel Prize autobiography". Retrieved on 2007-07-17.

Further reading Edit

  • Jim Gamble and Bert Love (1986), The Meccano System, London: New Cavendish Books. ISBN 0-904568-36-9

External linksEdit

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