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Toyota Land Cruiser
[[File:
80-89 Toyota Land Cruiser
|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1951–present
Class Off-road vehicle (1951–present)
Full-size SUV (1954–present)

The Toyota Land Cruiser (Japanese: トヨタ ランドクルーザー Toyota Rando-kurūzā?) is a series of four-wheel drive vehicles produced by the Japanese car maker Toyota Motor Corporation. Development of the first generation Land Cruiser began in 1951 as Toyota's version of a Jeep-like vehicle and production started in 1954. The Land Cruiser has been produced in convertible, hardtop, station wagon, and utility truck versions. The Land Cruiser's reliability and longevity has led to huge popularity, especially in Australia where it is the best-selling full-size, body-on-frame, four-wheel drive vehicle.[1] Toyota also extensively tests the Land Cruiser in the Australian outback — considered to be one of the toughest operating environments in both temperature and terrain.[2][3][4]

ChronologyEdit

PrehistoryEdit

In 1941 the Imperial Japanese Army occupied the Philippines, where they found an old Bantam Mk II, and promptly brought it to Japan. The Japanese military authorities commanded Toyota to make a similar vehicle but to not model the appearance on the American Jeep. The prototype was called the Model AK and was formally adopted by The Japanese Imperial Army as the Yon-Shiki Kogata Kamotsu-Sha ( 小型貨物 type 4 compact cargo-truck ).

Later in 1941 the Japanese government asked Toyota to produce a light truck for the Japan military campaign. Toyota developed a 1/2 ton prototype called the AK10 in 1942. The AK10 was built using reverse-engineering from the Bantam GP. There are no known surviving photographs of the AK10. The only known pictorial representations are some rough sketches. The truck featured an upright front grille, flat front wheel arches that angled down and back like the FJ40, headlights mounted above the wheel arches on either side of the radiator and a folding windshield.

The AK10 used the 2259 cc, 4-cylinder Type C engine from the Toyota Model AE sedan with a three-speed manual transmission and two-speed transfer gearbox connected to it. There is no mechanical relationship between the AK10 and the postwar Toyota "Jeep" BJ. Most of the AK10's were not actively used (unlike the U.S. Jeep) and there are almost no photographs of it in the battlefield.

BJ and FJEdit

BJ and FJ
Production 1951–1955
Assembly Toyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Body style(s) 2-door Softtop
Layout FR layout
Engine(s) 3.4 L I6 B petrol
3.9 L I6 F petrol
Wheelbase 2,650 mm (104.3 in)
  • 1950 - The Korean War created demand for a military light utility vehicle. The war put a Jeep on Japan's doorstep. The United States government ordered 100 vehicles with the new Willys specs and Toyota was asked to build them.
  • 1951 - The Toyota "Jeep" BJ prototype was developed in January 1951. This came from the demand for military-type utility vehicles, much like the British Land Rover Series 1 that appeared in 1948. The Jeep BJ was larger than the original U.S. Jeep and more powerful thanks to its Type B 3.4-liter six-cylinder OHV Gasoline engine which generated 85 hp (63 kW) at 3600 rpm and 215 N·m (159 lb·ft) torque at 1600 rpm. It had a part-time four-wheel drive system like the Jeep. Unlike the Jeep, however, the Jeep BJ had no low-range transfer case.
  • 1951 - In July 1951, Toyota's test driver Ichiro Taira drove the next generation of the Jeep BJ prototype up to the sixth stage of Mount Fuji, the first vehicle to climb that high. The test was overseen by the National Police Agency (NPA). Impressed by this feat, the NPA quickly placed an order for 289 of these offroad vehicles, making the Jeep BJ their official patrol car.[5]
  • 1953 - Regular production of the "Toyota Jeep BJ" began at Toyota Honsya Plant (Rolling chassis assembly), and body assembly and painting was done at Arakawa Bankin Kogyo KK, later known as ARACO (now an affiliate of Toyota Auto Body Co.).[5] The "Toyota Jeep BJ" Series was introduced alongside the following:
    • BJ-T (Touring),
    • BJ-R (Radio),
    • BJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine).
  • 1954 - The name "Land Cruiser" was created by the technical director Hanji Umehara. "In England we had another competitor - Land Rover. I had to come up with a name for our car that would not sound less dignified than those of our competitors. That is why I decided to call it 'Land Cruiser'," he recalls.[5]
  • 1954 - The 125 hp, 3.9-liter Type F gasoline engine added for the fire-engine chassis. Models are renamed as:
    • BJ-T (Touring),
    • BJ-R (Radio),
    • BJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine),
    • FJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine).

20 SeriesEdit

20 Series
Production 1955–1960
Assembly Toyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Body style(s) 2-door Softtop
2-door Hardtop
2-door pickup truck
4-door Station wagon
Layout FR layout
Engine(s) 3.9 L I6 F petrol
Wheelbase 2,710 mm (106.7 in)
  • 1955 - The Second generation, 20 Series was introduced. It was designed to have more civilian appeal than the BJ for export reasons. It also had more stylish bodywork and a better ride thanks to longer four-plate leaf springs which had been adapted from the Toyota Light Truck. It had a more powerful 3.9-liter six-cylinder Type F gasoline engine, but still only had a three speed gearbox. The interior of the vehicles were made more comfortable by moving the engine 120 mm (4.7 in) forward. The 20 Series still had no low range, but it had synchromesh on the third and fourth gears.
  • 1958 - The first Station wagon Land Cruiser was introduced with an even longer 2,650 mm (104.3 in) wheelbase (the FJ35V; wagon and van). The FJ25 production started in Brazil being the first Toyota vehicle built outside Japan.
  • 1957 - A 4-door Station Wagon was added as the FJ35V. Land Cruisers were first imported into Australia by B&D Motors as FJ25/28 cab chassis with Australian made bodies.[6] They were the first Japanese cars to be regularly exported to the country[7] and a few were initially used in the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme, by sub contractor Theiss Constructions.[8]

40 SeriesEdit

40 Series
[[File:Toyota Land Cruiser yellow vl|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Also called Toyota Bandeirante (Brazil)
Production 1960–1984
Assembly Toyota City, Japan
Body style(s) 2-door Softtop
2-door Hardtop
2-door pickup truck
4-door Station wagon
Layout Front engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
Engine(s) 3.9 L F I6 [9]
4.2 L 2F I6 [9]
3.0 L B diesel I4 [9]
3.2 L 2B diesel I4
3.4 L 3B diesel I4
3.6 L H diesel I6[9]
Wheelbase 90 in (2286 mm)
Length 151.2 in (3840.5 mm)
Width 65.6 in (1666.2 mm)
Height Softtop 76.8 in (1950.7 mm)
Hardtop 78.8 in (2001.5 mm)
Curb weight Softtop 3,263 lb (1,480 kg)
Hardtop 3,427 lb (1,554 kg)
Fuel capacity 18.5 US gallons
Main article: Toyota FJ40
  • 1960 - The 20 Series was upgraded to the now classic 40. Toyota made many production changes by buying new steel presses. Mechanically, the FJ40 was given a new 125 hp, 3.9 liter F engine and the Land Cruiser finally received low-range gearing, but continued the three speed main gearbox. The Brazilian model was rebadged the Bandeirante and received a Mercedes-Benz built Diesel engine generating 78 hp.
  • 1965 - Global production surpassed 50,000 vehicles.
    The Land Cruiser was the best selling Toyota in the United States.
  • 1968 - The 100,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.
  • 1972 - The 200,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.
  • 1973 - The 300,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.
    The first diesel Land Cruiser was introduced for export on long wheelbase models with a six-cylinder H engine[citation needed].
  • 1974 - A four-cylinder 3.0-liter B diesel was offered. The introduction of this engine boosted sales in Japan by putting the Land Cruiser in a lower tax compact Freight-car category than its 3.9-liter gasoline version. Note: the new B diesel engine was different from the B gasoline engine used in the original BJ.
  • 1975 - The 3.9-liter gasoline engine was replaced by a larger, more powerful 4.2-liter 2F unit.
    The FJ55 received front disc brakes.
  • 1976 - United States-version FJ40 Land Cruisers received front disc brakes like the FJ55.
    The Toyota Land Cruiser Association was founded in California.
  • 1977 - The Irish Army took delivery of the first of 77 FJ45 Land Cruisers. Although fast, reliable and with good off-road performance the type tended to rust excessively in the wet Irish climate. A few which did not succumb to the effects of weather were repainted in gloss olive green and survive as ceremonial gun tractors at military funerals.
  • 1978 - The first BJ / FJ40 and FJ55 models were officially sold in West Germany with both diesel (BJ40) and petrol engines (FJ40 /55).
  • 1979 - United States-version FJ40s were updated this year with a new wider, square bezel surrounding the headlights.
    Power steering and cooler were offered in FJ40s for the first time.
    The diesel engine was improved, evolving into the 3.2-liter 2B only in Japan.
    The 3.6-liter H diesel engine was optional in some markets.
  • 1981 - the Diesel version received front disc brakes and the more powerful 3.4-liter 3B engine.
  • 1983 - the last FJ40s imported to the U.S. were 1983 models (mid 1982 to mid 1983). It is unknown how many were imported by Toyota, but many guess the number to be around 300. 1983 FJ40s typically bring a premium for their rarity, though they are not much different from 1982 models (mid 1981 to mid 1982).

50 SeriesEdit

50 Series
[[File:Tlc2a|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Production 1967–1980
Assembly Toyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Body style(s) 4-door station wagon
Layout Front engine, four-wheel drive
Engine(s) 3.9 L I6 F[9] petrol
4.2 L I6 2F[9] petrol
Transmission(s) 3 or 4-speed manual (J30, H41 or H42)
Wheelbase 2,710 mm (106.7 in)
Length 4,673 mm (184.0 in)
Width 1,710 mm (67.3 in)
Height 1,864 mm (73.4 in)
  • 1967 - Production of the FJ55 began. The FJ55 was a 4-door station wagon version based on the FJ40's Drive-train, replacing the 4-Door FJ45V (I). It was colloquially known as the "Moose". It has also been referred to as a pig or an iron pig. The FJ55 had a longer wheelbase 2710 mm and was designed to be sold in North America and Australia.
  • Jan 1975 saw the F engine replaced by the 2F engine.[9] Unusually for Toyota, the model (e.g. FJ55) did not change.
  • Model 56 is in Japan only, with 2F engine ( Jan. 1975 - Jul. 1980 ).

60 SeriesEdit

60 Series
[[File:
Toyota Land Cruiser
|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Also called Toyota Samurai (Venezuela)
Production 1980–1990
Assembly Toyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Body style(s) 4-door station wagon
Layout Front engine, four-wheel drive
Engine(s) 3.4 L I4 3B diesel
3.4 L I4 13B-T diesel turbo
4.2 L I6 2F petrol
4.0 L I6 3F petrol
4.0 L I6 2H diesel
4.0 L I6 12H-T diesel turbo
Transmission(s) 4-speed manual H41F or H42F
4-speed automatic A440F
5-speed manual H55F (non-US)
Wheelbase 2,730 mm (107.5 in)
Length 4,675 mm (184.1 in)
Width 1,800 mm (70.9 in)
Height 1,750 mm (68.9 in)

The original Toyota Land Cruiser FJ 60 was available for purchase from 1981 through 1987. It is a front engine four door wagon which has available seating of five to seven. It is well known in the off-roading community for its 4X4 capabilities, despite being somewhat limited by its poor departure angle. The FJ 60 was offered in the following solid exterior colors: Alpine White, Brown, Desert Beige, Freeborn Red, Royal Blue; and in the following metallic exterior colors: Charcoal Gray, Cognac, Gray-Blue, Rootbeer, Sky Blue, Stardust Silver. In contrast to the FJ 62, the FJ 60 exhibits the classic round Land Cruiser headlights which are replicated now on the retro-style FJ Cruiser.

  • 1980 - The 60 series was introduced. While still retaining the rugged off-road characteristics of previous Land Cruisers, the 60 was designed to better compete in the emerging sport utility vehicle market. The 60 was given a variety of comforts like air conditioning, a rear heater and an upgraded interior. The FJ60's "2F" petrol engine was left unchanged from the "40" series while six-cylinder 4.0 litre 2H and four-cylinder 3.4 litre 3B diesel engines were added to the product line.
  • 1981 - Land Cruiser sales surpassed 1 million and a high-roof version was introduced. The 60 was introduced to South Africa when a stock Land Cruiser competed in the Toyota 1000 km Desert Race in the punishing wilds of [[Botswan
  • 1984 - This was the final year for the 40. Specialist suppliers of aftermarket parts and restorers who return old FJ40s to better-than-new condition replace Toyota dealers as the main source of Land Cruiser expertise.
  • 1984 - Alongside the 60, the Toyota Land Cruiser 70 Series were introduced.
  • 1985 - The Direct-injection 12H-T and 13B-T turbodiesel engine were introduced.
  • 1988 - The petrol engine was upgraded to a 4.0-litre 3F-E EFI engine. The FJ62G VX-Series was introduced allowing the Land Cruiser to be sold in Japan as a passenger vehicle.

70 SeriesEdit

70 Series
[[File:Toyota Land Cruiser HZJ76HV 001|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Production 1984–present
Assembly Toyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Body style(s) 2-door pickup truck
2-door softtop / hardtop / troopie
4-door van
Layout Front engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
Engine(s) 2.4 L 22R petrol I4
4.0 L 3F petrol I6
4.5 L 1FZ petrol I6
Diesel:
2.4 L 2L diesel I4
3.4 L PZ diesel I5
4.0 L 2H diesel I6
4.2 L 1HZ diesel I6
Turbodiesel:
2.4 L 2L-T turbodiesel I4
2.5 L VM HR588 TD I5 (Italy)[10]
3.4 L 13B-T turbodiesel I4
4.2 L 1HD turbodiesel I6
4.5 L 1VD turbodiesel V8
Transmission(s) 5-speed manual
Wheelbase 2,980 mm (117.3 in)
Length 4,995 mm (196.7 in)
Width 1,870 mm (73.6 in)
Height 2,070 mm (81.5 in)
Fuel capacity 1 or 2 90-litre tanks each
Main article: Toyota Land Cruiser 70 Series
  • 1984 - 70 Series was introduced. 70Heavy as a soft-top, hard-top, FRP top, utility, cab-chassis, and Troop Carrier (inward facing rear seats).The petrol engine was replaced with a 4.0-litre 3F engine. The 70 Light had a four-wheel coil spring solid-axle suspension for better ride quality. This lighter duty version of the Land Cruiser had the 22R 2.4-litre gasoline engine, 2L and 2L-T ( turbo ) 2.4-litre diesel engines commonly found in the Toyota Hilux. The 70 Light was sold in some markets as the Bundera or the Landcruiser II, later called 70 Prado. The 70 Prado eventually became popular and evolved into the 90. An automatic transmission (A440F) was introduced making it the first four-wheel drive Japanese vehicle with an automatic transmission.
  • 1990 - New-generation diesel engines were introduced including a five-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated motor (1PZ),and a six-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated motor (1 HZ).
  • 1993 to 1996 - the KZ 3 litre turbocharged diesel engine replaced the LJ in the 70 series in European markets where this model was known as the KZJ70.
  • 1993 - An advanced 24-valve, 4.5-litre six-cylinder petrol engine, 1FZ-FE was introduced.
  • 1999 - Toyota updated the 70 series in several ways. The solid front axle received coil-spring suspension. The rear leaf springs were lengthened for increased ride comfort and wheel travel. The six-bolt wheels were replaced with five-bolt wheels. Several smaller modifications to the drivetrain provided increased durability. The long-wheel-base models received new designations: 78 for the troop carrier, and 79 for the pick-up.
  • 2002 - HDJ79 is introduced to Australia with the 1HD-FTE 4.2-litre six-cylinder 24-valve turbodiesel EFI engine.
  • 2007 - Toyota's first turbodiesel V8 engine, the 1VD-FTV was released in some countries for the 70 Series Land Cruiser. Other modifications include the addition of a 4-door medium-wheel-base model (the 76) and a significantly altered front look on all models.
  • The Sixth and Seventh generations of the Land Cruiser are still being produced and sold in African and Latin American regions. Production in Venezuela ended in 2008.
  • The 70 series is also still marketed in Australia as 4-door wagon, 2-door 'Troop Carrier' and 2-door cab-chassis.

80 SeriesEdit

80 Series
[[File:Toyota Land Cruiser -- 03-25-2010|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Also called Lexus LX 450
Toyota Land Cruiser Autana (Colombia, Venezuela)
Production 1989–1997
Assembly Toyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Cumaná, Venezuela
Body style(s) 4-door SUV
Layout Front engine / four-wheel drive
Engine(s) 4.0 L I6 3F-E petrol
4.5 L I6 1FZ petrol
4.2 L I6 1HD diesel turbo
4.2 L I6 1HZ diesel
Transmission(s) 4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Wheelbase 2,850 mm (112.2 in)
Length 4,780 mm (188.2 in) (1990-94)
4,820 mm (189.8 in) (1995-97)
Width 1,830 mm (72.0 in) (1990-91)
1,930 mm (76.0 in) (1992-97)
Height 1,785 mm (70.3 in) (1990-91)
1,860 mm (73.2 in) (1992-94)
1,870 mm (73.6 in) (1995-97)
Curb weight 4,595 lb (2,084 kg) (1990-92)
4,760 lb (2,159 kg) (1993-97)

The Land Cruiser 80 series was introduced in late 1989. It had swing-out back doors, which were replaced by a winch door in 1995. The Land Cruiser was nicknamed the Burbuja (Bubble) in Colombia and Venezuela due to its roundness, but it was officially released as Land Cruiser Autana in both countries. The name is a reference to the Tepui mesa Autana, a spectacular plateau & cave system along the Guiana Shield craton. Land Cruiser sales reached 2 million vehicles.

  • 1990 - The 80 series station wagon was introduced, replacing the 60 series. All 80s sold in North America and Europe now have a full-time four-wheel drive system. In Japan, Africa and Australia, a part-time system was still available. 80s produced between 1990 and 1991 had an open centre differential which was lockable in 4HI and automatically locked in 4LO. From 1992 onward, vehicles with anti-lock brakes had a viscous coupling that sent a maximum of 30% torque to the non-slipping axle. The differential was lockable in 4HI and automatically locked in 4LO.
  • 1990 - A new generation of diesel engines were introduced, adding to the engines available in the 80 series. The 80 series came with either a (3F-E) six-cylinder naturally aspirated petrol engine, a six-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated diesel engine, (1HZ), or a 1HD-T direct injection turbo diesel.
  • 1991 - By mid 1991 the (3F-E) was introduced to the Australian market, a fuel injected version of the 3F.
  • 1993 - An advanced 24-valve, 4.5-litre six-cylinder petrol engine, 1FZ-FE was introduced. Larger brakes were added from October 1992 and the total wheelbase was made slightly longer.Front and rear axle lockers (code k294) appeared as an option. The High Pinion Electric Locking front differential become available in US models.
  • 1994 - A limited edition Land Cruiser Blue Marlin FZJ80R was introduced into the Australian market. They have 4.5 L straight 6 petrol motors with double overhead cams, automatic or manual transmission and 158 kW (215 PS/212 hp) at 4600 rpm. The car is blue from the Blue Marlin fish and they have the Blue Marlin logo throughout the car. Some of the features that the Blue Marlin included were altimeters, power windows, disk brakes, leather gear knob and steering wheel, central locking, leather trim, chrome handles and sidesteps, 16" alloy wheels, limited slip diff, ABS (antilock brakes), power steering, CD and cassette players, flares and a limited edition bull bar. Only 500 were made.
  • 1995 - Driver and passenger airbags were introduced as were adjustable shoulder-belt anchors and an anti-lock braking system. The "T O Y O T A" badge was replaced with the modern Toyota logo (which is sometimes described as a "bean with a hat" aka "the sombrero").
  • 1996 - In the Dakar Rally, a pair of Land Cruisers finished first and second in the unmodified production class. All American and British 80s adopted anti-lock brakes and airbags as standard equipment. The Land Cruiser was withdrawn from Canada this year and was replaced by the Lexus LX 450.
  • 1997 - A limited run of Land Cruiser 80s was built specifically for collectors and therefore called the Land Cruiser Collector's Edition. The Collectors Edition sported Collectors Edition badging, "Collector's Edition" embroidered floor mats, automatic climate control, wheels with the "D" windows painted dark grey and special grey side moldings, and black pearl badging. The Collectors Edition was only available for the 1997 model year and the package was added to many of the available body colors.
  • 1997 - An unknown number of FZJ80 Land Cruisers were sold in the United States as "40th Anniversary Limited Edition" models. They were available in 2 colours; Antique Sage Pearl (Often referred to as Riverrock, Pewter or Grey) and Emerald Green. The 40th Anniversary models included apron badges, a serial number badge on the centre console, black pearl exterior badges, "40th Anniversary Limited Edition" embroidered floor mats, automatic climate control, two-tone tan and brown leather interiors and wheels with the "D" windows painted dark gray. Many were manufactured with the optional electric front and rear locking differentials, keyless entry, port-installed roof racks and running boards. There are some examples that did not have many of these extras. This is the last year for the electric locking front differentials.
  • 2008 - Last 80-Series vehicle was built in Venezuela which was the only country producing the vehicles after production ended in Japan in 1997.

90 SeriesEdit

90 Series
[[File:Toyota Land Cruiser front 20071025|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Also called Toyota Merú (Venezuela, 2-door)[11]
Production 1996–present
Main article: Toyota Land Cruiser Prado
  • 1996 - Alongside the 70 and 80, the 90 Prado was added. The 90 Prado was made by Tahara Plant, available as a 3-door short wheelbase and 5-door long wheelbase version with either the 5VZ-FE petrol engine (24-valve six-cylinder, 3.4-litre), the 3RZ-FS (four-cylinder 2.7-litre) petrol engine or the 1KZ-TE turbodiesel (four-cylinder 3.0-litre) and 5L diesel(four-cylinder 3.0-litre).
  • 90=Short wheel base
  • 95=Long wheel base

100 SeriesEdit

100 Series
[[File:Toyota Land Cruiser -- 03-11-2010|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Also called Lexus LX 470
Toyota Land Cruiser Amazon (UK 1998-2003)
Production 1998–2007
Assembly Toyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Body style(s) 4-door SUV
Engine(s) 4.5 L I6 1FZ petrol
4.2 L I6 1HD-T diesel turbo
4.2 L I6 1HD-FTE diesel turbo
4.2 L I6 1HZ diesel
4.7 L V8 2UZ petrol
Transmission(s) 5-speed manual,
5-speed automatic
Wheelbase 2,850 mm (112 in)
Length 4,890 mm (193 in)
Width 1,941 mm (76.4 in)
Height 1,849 mm (72.8 in)
Curb weight 2,320 kg (5,100 lb)
Fuel capacity 145 l (38 US gal)

In April 1998, the 100 series Land Cruiser was introduced to replace the 8-year-old 80 series.

There are two distinct versions of the 100-series, the 100 and the 105. The two versions look very similar, but there are significant differences under the bodywork. Despite these differences and official model names, both the 100 and 105 are collectively known as the 100 series.

The 105 carried over the majority of it’s chassis and powertrain from the 80-series with coil suspended solid axles front & rear, and straight-6 petrol and diesel engines. These models were only sold in African, Australian and South American markets.

The 100 models were fitted with a slightly wider chassis, independent front suspension (IFS) and two new engines. The change to IFS was a first for a Land Cruiser, and was made (in combination with rack-and-pinion steering) to improve on-road handling. However it also limited the vehicle’s off-road capability and durability, hence the decision to offer the solid axle 105 models alongside the IFS 100 models in some markets. The table below identifies the range of 100 and 105 models and their worldwide availability.

Although the 100 and 105 bodies are identical, there are some exterior visual indications between the two. The most obvious is the front end of the vehicle often appearing lower than the rear on the 100 models, due to the IFS. The other indicator is the design of the wheels. The 100 models have almost flat wheel designs, while he 105 models have dished wheels. This difference allows the two versions to retain similar wheel tracks, even though the 100 has a significantly wider axle track to allow for the IFS system.

The introduction of a V8 engine was also a first for a Land Cruiser, and was specifically intended to improve sales in the North-American market, where it was the only engine available. In Australia, the 100 V8 was initially only available in the range-topping GXV model, while entry and mid-range models were the 105 powered by the 1FZ-FE I6 petrol, or 1Hz diesel engines. The new 1HD-FTE turbo-diesel 100 was added to the Australian range in October 2000 after being available in Europe and the UK since launch in 1998. The 4WD media in Australia were critical of Toyota’s decision to offer the acclaimed 1HD-FTE engine only in combination with IFS. Australian 4WD Monthly magazine said "We will never forgive Toyota for going independent at the front with the mighty 4.2 turbo-diesel".

The 100 series formed the basis for the Lexus LX 470, which was also sold in Japan as the Toyota Cygnus.

The 100 series was called the Toyota Land Cruiser Amazon in the UK and Ireland from 1998 to 2003.

In 2000, Toyota celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Land Cruiser with commemorative models offered in several countries. Total global production to date was 3.72 million vehicles.

The 100 series remained in production until late 2007, with several minor facelifts such as headlights, taillights, front grill, rear spoiler and specification changes introduced over the years.

VariantsEdit

Designation Engine Power Torque Availability
HZJ105 1HZ 4.2 L diesel I6 96 kW (129 hp) at 3,800 rpm 271 N·m (200 ft·lb) at 2,200 rpm Africa, Asia, Australia, Middle East, South America
FZJ105 1FZ-FE 4.5 L petrol I6 158 kW (212 hp) at 4,600 rpm 373 N·m (275 ft·lb) at 3,200 rpm Africa, Asia, Australia, Middle East, South America
FZJ100 1FZ-FE 4.5 L petrol I6 158 kW (212 hp) at 4,600 rpm 373 N·m (275 ft·lb) at 3,200 rpm Middle East
UZJ100 2UZ-FE 4.7 L petrol V8 170 kW (228 hp) at 4,800 rpm 410 N·m (302 ft·lb) at 3,400 rpm Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, Japan, Middle East, North America, UK
HDJ1001 1HD-T 4.2 L turbodiesel I6 123 kW (165 hp) at 3,600 rpm 352 N·m (260 ft·lb) at 2,000 rpm Africa, South America
HDJ1002 1HD-FTE 4.2 L turbodiesel I6 150 kW (201 hp) at 3,400 rpm 430 N·m (317 ft·lb) at 1,400 rpm Australia*, Europe, Japan, UK

*This engine not released in Australia until 2000.

Known problems and issuesEdit

The 100-series is generally considered a durable and reliable vehicle, however there have been two issues identified for vehicles operating in harsh conditions:

  • The IFS 100-series gained a reputation for front suspension failures in operating conditions where the front suspension was prone to hitting the bump stops. Several companies produce strengthened lower wishbones to eliminate cracks developing.[12]
  • Both IFS 100 and Live-axle 105 models have been reported as suffering from broken front differential centres when driven in harsh conditions.[13]

AwardsEdit

  • 1998 Australian 4WD Monthly 4x4 of the Year (FZJ105)
  • 1999 Australian 4WD Monthly 4x4 of the Year (FZJ105)
  • 2000 Australian 4WD Monthly 4x4 of the Year (FZJ105)
  • 2000 Bushdriver Magazine 4WD Wagon of the Year (HDJ100)
  • 2001 4x4 Australia Magazine 4WD of the Year (HDJ100)

200 SeriesEdit

200 Series
[[File:2008 Toyota Land Cruiser|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Also called Toyota Roraima (Venezuela)
Lexus LX 570
Production 2008–present
Assembly Toyota Auto Body
Toyota City, Japan
Tahara, Aichi Japan
Tianjin China
Body style(s) 4-door SUV
Layout Front engine / four-wheel drive
Engine(s)

4.0 L V6 1GR petrol
5.7 L V8 3UR petrol[14]
4.7 L V8 2UZ-FE petrol[15]
4.5 L V8 1VD diesel turbo

4.6 L V8 1UR petrol[16]
Transmission(s) 6-speed automatic
5-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Wheelbase 2,850 mm (112.2 in)
Length 4,950 mm (194.9 in)
Width 1,970 mm (77.6 in)
Height 1,880 mm (74.0 in)

The Toyota Land Cruiser was redesigned for the 2008 model year. Known as the 200 Series, it shares the 2008 Lexus LX 570's platform and overall design. The frame was all new, derived from the second-generation Tundras[citation needed] but shortened and strengthened by 20 percent. Bigger brake rotors and calipers were added and the front suspension was made heavier duty than the Land Cruiser's first effort at IFS in the 100-series and this underbelly is also protected by skid plates. Also, the roof pillars were totally redesigned to better protect occupants in the event of a rollover. Though many time-honored Land Cruiser supporters welcomed the re-invigoration of the mechanical aspects of the vehicle, the 200 Series encountered some criticism due to its bland body restyling, with some claiming that Toyota has 'overdeveloped' the classic trademarked Land Cruiser identity in its efforts to fit the Land Cruiser into modern 21st century motoring and vehicle design. While Toyota is guilty of playing it safe with the styling, ever-increasing crash regulations and a demand for creature comforts have played their parts. Nonetheless, the Land Cruiser remains the NATO vehicle of choice and remains a very serious off-roader which can run with a Range Rover in the harshest of environments, though despite improvements it falls short of the Range Rover as regards interior finish and on-road dynamics. Toyota presented its completely redesigned Land Cruiser in October at the 2007 Australian International Motor Show in Sydney. The vehicle entered production in September and was available for sale from November 2007. Although the new Land Cruiser was presented at its first motor show in Sydney, it was already on sale in Japan, as it has already been launched there in September 2007. It also became available in Venezuela for sale early in November under the local nickname of "Roraima" (Taken from Mount Roraima in Venezuela). Early reliability has proved excellent. The 200 Series is offered in three different levels of trim in Australia and Oceania:

  • GXL
  • VX
  • Sahara

The 200 Series, offered numerous features and upgrades over its predecessor not limited to the cosmetic changes made to the body and interior, including:

  • Smart Entry - A sensor is triggered when the remote is brought near the vehicle, allowing the user to simply touch the door handle to open it.
  • Smart Start - Start/Stop push button for ignition; a key is not required.
  • 4-zone climate control on Sahara models, with outlet vents increased from 18 to 28
  • 10 airbags (VX & Sahara)
  • Stronger and lighter frame

Various driver assist technologies not offered on previous models including:

  • CRAWL; a four-wheel drive control system that operates like an off-road cruise control, automatically maintaining a low uniform vehicle speed using brakes and throttle.
  • Downhill Assist Control
  • A newly developed ABS system, the multi-terrain anti-lock braking system (ABS)
  • Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System (KDSS), allows for greater wheel articulation

Engine and transmission improvements include:

  • An all new optional V8 Diesel engine, the Toyota VD engine (A Twin-turbo version of the engine used in the 70 Series since 2007).
  • Automatic transmission standard across all levels of trim of the 200 Series, 5-speed manual transmission is offered only with the 4.0L GX models (in selected regions). A five-speed automatic gearbox is assigned to the 4.7L petrol models, while the 4.5L diesel models receive a six-speed automatic.

In Japan, Land Cruiser has minor change in 2009 where it receives 4.6L V8 engine, 1UR-FE and gearbox is replaced with 6-speed automatic.[17]

Although displacement is 55cc smaller than 4.7 L V8 engine (4663cc), the horsepower has been increased from 212 kW (284 hp) to 234 kW (314 hp), torque increased from 448 N·m (330 ft·lb) to 460 N·m (339 ft·lb) and fuel consumption is improved from 6.6 km/L to 7.1 km/L (Japan 10·15 mode measurement).

In North America, the Land Cruiser 200 series is offered only with a 5.7 L V8 petrol producing 284 kW (381 hp) and 544 N·m (401 ft·lb) of torque channeled through a 6-speed automatic. Beige or gray leather is standard, as are 14-airbags and a 14 speaker JBL sound system. The only wheel choice is 18" allowing a lot of sidewall so the vehicle can be driven off-road without modification though a more aggressive tread pattern is advised for deep mud. It comes in only one trim level with only one major option - which is the Upgrade Package, which adds a rear screen, small spoiler and heated rear seats among other minor items. There is no Active Height Control for longevity and no xenon headlights, so the lights can be repaired by the user if necessary. The KDSS suspension allows massive amounts of wheel articulation and with automatic sway bar disconnect the Land Cruiser is able to boast an RTI score ten times that of the same-year Ford Explorer. The vehicle is available in small numbers and is a rare sight as the Lexus LX570 variant is the more popular choice as it offers 20" alloys and what is considered by some as a more prestigious badge when paying upwards of US$70,000.

Sales numbersEdit

Calendar year United States
2000 15,509[18]
2001 7,591
2002 6,752[19]
2003 6,671
2004 6,778[20]
2005 4,870
2006 3,376[21]
2007 3,251
2008 3,801[22]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Smallwikipedialogo This page uses some content from Wikipedia. The original article was at Toyota Land Cruiser. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with Tractor & Construction Plant Wiki, the text of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons by Attribution License and/or GNU Free Documentation License. Please check page history for when the original article was copied to Wikia

  1. "Autoweb Australia". Autoweb.com.au. Retrieved on 2010-10-30.
  2. "SPY PHOTOS: More New Toyota LandCruiser". Worldcarfans.com (2007-02-13). Retrieved on 2010-01-16.
  3. GoAutoMedia (2008-04-05). "Lexus LX LX570 5-dr wagon - First drive: LX570 is the lap of Lexus SUV luxury". GoAuto. Retrieved on 2010-01-16.
  4. "Toyota 200 Series LandCruiser". Drive.com.au (2008-01-11). Retrieved on 2010-01-16.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 (1985) The Story of Land Cruiser. Tokyo: 4x4 Magazine Co.. 
  6. "The Long Run — Toyota: The first 40 years in Australia", Pedr Davis, South Hurstville: Type Forty Pty Ltd, 1999, ISBN 0-947079-908, p24.
  7. "Land Cruisers from Japan", The Age (September 20, 1957), p. 1. 
  8. O'Kane, Tony (January 18, 2010). "2010 Toyota Landcruiser 76 Series GXL Wagon Road Test and Review", The Motor Report. Retrieved on January 19, 2010. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 "Toyota Vehicle Identification Manual", Toyota Motor Corporation, Overseas Parts Department, Catalog No.97913-84, 1984, Japan
  10. (1990) in Mastrostefano, Raffaele: Quattroruote: Tutte le Auto del Mondo 1990 (in Italian). Milano: Editoriale Domus S.p.A, 1340–1341. 
  11. "[http://www.toyota.com.ve/cars/new_cars/land_cruiser_90 /index.asp Toyota Merú]" (in Spanish). Retrieved on 2010-01-10.
  12. Pepper, Robert (July 2006). "LC100 Suspension Solutions". Overlander 4WD Magazine. Retrieved on 18 July 2010.
  13. "Exterior Dimensions" (PDF). Retrieved on 2010-10-30.
  14. "Goo-net 2007 Land Cruiser". Goo-net.com. Retrieved on 2010-10-30.
  15. "Toyota Japan Land Cruiser". Toyota.jp. Retrieved on 2010-10-30.
  16. "Toyota Japan 2009 Land Cruiser press release". Toyota.co.jp (2009-04-16). Retrieved on 2010-10-30.
  17. "Toyota Sets Sales Record for Sixth Year in a Row". Theautochannel.com. Retrieved on 2009-12-12.
  18. "Toyota Announces Best Sales Year in Its 46-Year History, Breaks Sales Record for Eighth Year in a Row". Theautochannel.com. Retrieved on 2009-12-12.
  19. "Toyota Reports 2005 and December Sales". Theautochannel.com (2006-01-04). Retrieved on 2009-12-12.
  20. "Toyota Reports 2007 and December Sales". Theautochannel.com (2008-01-03). Retrieved on 2009-12-12.
  21. "Toyota Reports 2008 and December Sales". Theautochannel.com (2009-01-05). Retrieved on 2009-12-12.

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