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Toyota Tacoma
[[File:2011 Toyota Tacoma Double Cab -- NHTSA|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Manufacturer Toyota
Hino
Model year(s) 1995–present
Assembly Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico (TMMBC)
San Antonio, Texas, USA (TMMTX)
Hamura, Japan
Predecessor Toyota pickup
Class Compact pickup truck (1995–2004)
Mid-size pickup truck (2005–present)
Body style(s) 2-door regular cab
4-door crew cab
Layout Front-engine, rear-wheel drive / Four-wheel drive

The Toyota Tacoma is a compact pickup truck produced and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation since 1995. The second-generation Tacoma was Motor Trend Magazine's Truck of the Year for 2005. The Toyota Tacoma is named after the City of Tacoma, Washington, USA.


First generation (1995–2004)Edit

First generation
[[File:01-04 Toyota Tacoma|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Production 1995–2004
Model year(s) 1995–2004
Engine(s) 2.4 L 2RZ-FE I4 142 hp (106 kW)
2.7 L 3RZ-FE I4 150 hp (112 kW)
3.4 L 5VZ-FE V6 190 hp (142 kW)
Transmission(s) 4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Wheelbase 1995-2000 Regular Cab: 103.3 in (2624 mm)
2001-04 Regular Cab: 104.3 in (2649 mm)
Xtracab: 121.9 in (3096 mm)
Length 1995-97 Regular Cab 2WD: 174.8 in (4440 mm)
Xtracab 2WD: 193.3 in (4910 mm)
1995-97 Regular Cab 4WD: 180.5 in (4585 mm)
1995-97 Xtracab 4WD: 199.0 in (5055 mm)
1998-2000 Regular Cab 4WD, 1998-2002 PreRunner Regular Cab 2WD: 183.8 in (4669 mm)
1998-2002 Xtracab 4WD & PreRunner Xtracab: 202.3 in (5138 mm)
1998-2002 Regular Cab 2WD: 184.5 in (4686 mm)
1998-2002 Xtracab 2WD: 203.1 in (5159 mm)
2003-04 Regular Cab 4WD: 184.4 in (4684 mm)
2003-04 Xtracab V6 & Double Cab: 202.9 in (5154 mm)
Width 66.5 in (1689 mm)
Between wheel well: 40 in (1016 mm)
2001-02 Crew Cab: 70.1 in (1781 mm)
2003-04 Crew Cab: 70.3 in (1786 mm)
Height 2WD: 61.0-64.1 in (1549-1628 mm)
4WD: 66.3-67.7 in (1684-1720 mm)
Curb weight 2WD: 3155 lbs
4WD: 3877 lbs
Fuel capacity 57.2 litres (15.1 US gal/12.6 imp gal)
70 litres (18.5 US gal/15.4 imp gal)
Related Toyota Hilux
Toyota Land Cruiser Prado
Toyota 4Runner/Hilux Surf
Toyota Tundra
Toyota T100

The Tacoma was introduced in the US in 1995 as a replacement for the Hilux, which prior to this was marketed in the US under the name Toyota Pickup. Compared with the Hilux, the Tacoma is engineered with a greater priority on ride quality, handling, comfort, and safety over ruggedness and payload capacity. The design is intended to better suit the needs of the US and Canadian pickup truck market, where pickup trucks, particularly compact and mid-sized models, are often used as personal vehicles, and less exclusively for commercial, argricultural, and off road use.

There were a total of three engines available for the Toyota Tacoma: the 2.4 L four cylinder rated at 142 hp (106 kW) and 160 lb·ft (217 N·m) of torque, the 2.7 L four cylinder rated at 150 hp (112 kW) and 177 lb·ft (240 N·m) of torque, and the 3.4 L V6 rated at 190 hp (142 kW) and 220 lb·ft (298 N·m) of torque. The 2.4 L gave a highly useful 29 miles per US gallon (8.1 L/100 km/35 mpg-imp) (hwy), the 2.7 L gave 26 miles per US gallon (9.0 L/100 km/31 mpg-imp) (hwy), and the 3.4 L delivered 22 miles per US gallon (11 L/100 km/26 mpg-imp) (hwy).[1]

Two-wheel drive Tacomas had 5-stud wheel lug patterns. The 2.4 L and 3.4 L engines were available in this vehicle depending on options. Automatic and manual transmissions were available.

Four-wheel drive Tacomas had six-stud wheel lug patterns, which had been used on the prior pickups (pre-Tacoma trucks). The truck's frame is fully boxed until immediately after the front leaf spring mount bracket where it transitions into a c-frame section. The 3.4 V6's manual transmission was an R150F while the automatic transmission was an A340F (Aisin code is 30-40LE). From 95-97 Single cab Tacomas had the option of a manual transmission with the 3.4 V6 engine. From 98 on, the single cabs only got a 2.7 or a 2.4 4-cyl from factory. TRD packages started in 98 (if the V6 engine was selected, a differential locker in the rear came with it).

Prerunner models started in 98. They share the same front and rear suspension parts and geometry, frame, styling and engine options as the 4x4 Tacomas of this year range. Prerunner Tacomas also had the option of the TRD Off-Road package which (like the 4x4) got a rear differential locker if it was a V6 model (among other suspension variations). One downside is there was not option of a 5-speed transmission. The V6 Tacoma automatic transmissions were an A340E. Because of the similarities in the Prerunner and 4x4 models, it is possible to use stock parts to convert a Prerunner to a 4x4.

In its first couple years of production the Tacoma sold very well, attracting many young buyers. The first generation Tacoma underwent a total of two cosmetic facelifts: the first in 1998, and the second in 2001. The facelifts mainly entailed new headlights and grilles. Mechanical changes included a switch to distributorless ignitions (coil-on-plug) in 1997 and in 1998 longer rear leaf springs. A passenger-side air bag was added for 1998, and the driver's side air bag (added in 1995) was "depowered". All 4x4 models came with Toyota's Automatic Differential Disconnect (ADD) system after the 2000 model year.

The only extra feature in 2001 was a new crew cab (four door) model added to the lineup. The crew cab featured four doors, while the extended cabs still opened with two doors. The extended cab featured a 6-foot (2 m) bed while the crew cab featured a 5-foot-5-inch (1.7 m) bed. Many customers were upset with small crew cab beds, but most competitors shared this shortcoming.

In 2001, along with the front facelift, Toyota had also unveiled an S-Runner trim package which included the 3.4 liter V6 engine. It came with 16-inch (410 mm) alloy wheels, and a 5 speed manual transmission with Tokico gas shocks. There were only 200 produced each month from 2001-2004. By 2003 the Tacoma had gained 16.5 percent sales from its previous years. The Tacoma's popularity only increased in the next few years. By 2004 it was ahead of the Nissan Frontier, and Dodge Dakota, but still 2.2 percent behind in sales to the Ford Ranger.

In 2008, Toyota proactively announced a 15 year, unlimited mileage corrosion warranty for 1995-2000 models due to inadequate rustproofing and frame corrosion issues affecting a small number of Tacomas. Toyota will either repair the frame or buyback the truck for 1.5 times its KBB retail value.[2][3]


Second generation (2005–present)Edit

Second generation
[[File:2009 Toyota Tacoma -- NHTSA|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Production 2004–present
Model year(s) 2005–present
Layout Front engine, rear-wheel drive/four-wheel drive
Engine(s) 2.7 L 2TR-FE I4 (159 hp)
4.0 L 1GR-FE V6 (236 hp)
Transmission(s) 4-speed automatic
5-speed automatic
5-speed manual
6-speed manual
Wheelbase Regular Cab 4WD & PreRunner: 110.0 in (2794 mm)
Access Cab: 127.8 in (3246 mm)/127.2 in (3231 mm)
Double Cab Long Bed: 140.9 in (3579 mm)
Regular Cab 2WD: 109.4 in (2779 mm)
Length Regular Cab: 190.4 in (4836 mm)
Access Cab: 208.1 in (5286 mm)
Double Cab Long Bed: 221.3 in (5621 mm)
Width 2WD Extended: 74.6 in (1895 mm)
2WD Regular: 72.2 in (1834 mm)
4WD: 74.7 in (1897 mm)
X-Runner: 74.0 in (1880 mm)
Height Extended Cab & 4WD Regular: 69.9 in (1775 mm)
Double Cab: 70.1 in (1781 mm)
Regular Cab 2WD: 65.7 in (1669 mm)
2005-06 X-Runner: 65.2 in (1656 mm)
2007-Present X-Runner: 72.2 in (1834 mm)
Curb weight (3550 lb)
(3950 lb)
Fuel capacity 79.9 litres (21.1 US gal/17.6 imp gal)
Related Toyota Hilux
Toyota Land Cruiser Prado
Toyota 4Runner/Hilux Surf
Toyota Tundra
Toyota FJ Cruiser

At the 2004 Chicago Auto Show, Toyota unveiled a bigger and more powerful Tacoma. This new Tacoma was available in eighteen different configurations, that included three cab configurations, four transmissions, two engines, and two bed lengths. The three cab configurations consist of regular cab, access cab, and crew cab. The transmissions come in 4 speed automatic, 5 speed automatic, 5 speed manual, and 6 speed manual. Beds are: 6 ft (1.8 m) long bed, and 5 ft (1.5 m) short bed. The Tacoma's 4.0-liter 1GR-FE V6 took the place of the original 3.4-liter V6. The new V6 had many enhancements, such as a new 6500 pound tow rating, and a payload capacity of 1650 pounds. It produces 236 horsepower (176 kW) and 266 foot-pounds of torque. The smaller, but all-new 2.7-liter 2TR-FE 4-cylinder alternative in less expensive models is rated at 159 hp (119 kW) and 180 lb·ft (244 N·m). of torque.

Toyota also introduced an X-Runner trim, which replaces the slow selling S-Runner trim from the previous generation. The X-Runner features the 1GR-FE paired to a six speed manual transmission, 18 in (457 mm) alloy wheels, lowered two inches from the factory and included an X-Brace suspension package. Toyota also included a Down-Hill Assist Control (DAC) and Hill-Start Assist Control (HAC), with models that were equipped with the optional Toyota Racing Development (TRD) Off-Road package. DAC automatically applies braking during downhill decents while HAC prevents the vehicle from rolling backwards on hills. A rear locking differential, or limited-slip differential were also some optional features. Every Tacoma was manufactured with a composite inner bed that includes a deck rail system with four tie down cleats, hook-pins, storage boxes, and a power outlet (models with TRD packages). The tie down cleats are rated to hold up to 220 lb (100 kg).

The 2006 model Tacoma was a bit different from the 2005 model. The 2006 model made some options standard. Toyota also added 2 new interior colors for 2007 model year. 2008 models are carry ons from 2007. For 2009 safety features were added and the Tacoma no longer offers a mechanical limited slip differential rather an open differential which uses individual wheel braking to simulate a mechanical LSD or "Auto-LSD". TRD off-road models continue to come equipped with a locking rear differential. The second generation Tacomas are assembled in Tijuana, Mexico and Fremont, California while the plastic/composite beds are all built in Mexico. However, in August 2009 Toyota announced that it would relocate Tacoma production from Fremont to San Antonio, Texas, consolidating it with its Toyota Tundra production line and thus having all American-made Toyota pickups manufactured at one facility.

A minor facelift came for 2009, including a slightly revised grill on some models, new LED taillamps, and on the X-Runner, TRD Offroad and TRD Sport models includes smoked headlamp trim. Auxiliary audio input now comes standard. The Access/Double Cab trucks have two new ceiling mounted speakers and available backup monitor. Four new exterior colors are also added to the Tacoma.

After the Bankruptcy of GM, GM abandoned the NUMMI venture. Following the decision of GM, Toyota terminated all Corolla and Tacoma production. In 2010 all Tacoma production will be moved to Toyota's Texas plant in San Antonio. The Tacoma will be built alongside the Tundra, its bigger brother. By doing this, Toyota has moved all of its NA truck production to one plant. This will bring a total 1,000 new jobs to San Antonio.

In 2012, like many of its competitors, the Tacoma is expected to be redesigned and re-engineered, two years after the release of the new 4Runner.

Safety and structural integrityEdit

The Tacoma comes standard with anti-lock brakes, brake assist, and electronic brakeforce distribution. In 2008, a rollover sensor was added which would deploy the side curtain airbags in the event of rollover in Tacomas equipped with the optional side airbags. Beginning with the 2009 model year, all Tacomas feature Toyota's Star Safety System which added Vehicle Stability Control and traction control. Front row side torso airbags and side curtain airbags for both rows also become standard as well as active head restraints.[4][5]

Given the smaller size of pickup trucks in the Tacoma's category, crash testing for these sized trucks lags with how well most full size trucks perform. However, in an Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) test of the Tacoma and other small trucks, only the side airbag equipped Tacoma received the highest overall rating of "Good" in the side impact test.[6][7] The Tacoma also is rated "Good" in the frontal offset crash test.[8] In 2009 with the active head restraints the Tacoma is given the IIHS's Top Safety Pick award.

NHTSA crash test ratings (2006):[9]
Frontal Driver: Star fullStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svg
Frontal Passenger: Star fullStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svg
Side Driver: Star fullStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svg
Side Rear Passenger: Star fullStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svg
Rollover: Star fullStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar empty.svg

X-Runner SpecificEdit

The Toyota X-Runner is a limited production trim. The X-Runner is only available in three colors per year, and only four colors total. From 2005-2008 the X-Runner is available in Speedway Blue, Radiant Red and Black Sand Pearl. In 2009 Radiant Red was discontinued and replaced with Barcelona Red Metallic.

Key differences between the X-Runner and the other packages include tweaks to the suspension, ground effects, and a 3.15 Final Drive ratio(3.73 for V6 PreRunner and 4X4). Toyota added a rear mounted X-Brace to stiffen up the rear end (hence the name X-Runner). The chassis was further stiffened by adding two more support braces to the frame. An optional big brake kit by TRD is also available on the X-Runner; which consists of a 332 mm slotted rotor and 4 piston caliper. The BBK (big brake kit) was designed by StopTech.

Toyota-Tacoma-XRunner

2005-2008 Tacoma X-Runner extended cab

Toyota Racing DevelopmentEdit

In 1998 Toyota added a new Toyota Racing Development (TRD) off road package. The package includes off road tires, 16-inch alloy wheels, TRD dampers, a locking rear differential, and the TRD graphics. In 2003 Toyota introduced a TRD sport package on the Tundra full-size pickup. This package was not available until 2005 for the Tacoma. This package includes street performance tires, 17 inch alloy wheels, shocks, race inspired hood, and TRD sport graphics. It is also about 200 dollars more expensive than the original TRD off road package.

TRD superchargerEdit

Toyota Racing Development offers a TRD supercharger for the FJ Cruiser and Tacoma equipped with 4.0-liter V6 engine, available through Toyota dealerships. The supercharger increases the Tacoma's power output to 304 hp (227 kW) from the original 236, and the torque output to 334 lb·ft (453 N·m).[10]

This all-new TRD supercharger is compatible on all 2005 through 2009 model year Toyota Tacoma trucks, and 2007 and 2009 model year FJ Cruiser SUV. This supercharger system features Eaton roots-type rotating components in a one-piece integral manifold, iridium spark plugs, and a five-rib serpentine drive belt system. It produces six to eight pounds of boost pressure per square inch.

The supercharger, when installed by an authorized Scion or Toyota dealer, has the same warranty as powertrain, five years or 60,000 miles (97,000 km), or the balance of the new car warranty, whichever is greater. When not installed by an authorized dealer, the supercharger is covered by a 12-month, 12,000-mile (19,000 km) parts-only warranty. The manufacturer's suggested retail price of the TRD supercharger is $4,500, not including installation.

AftermarketEdit

The 2RZ-FE and 3RZ-FE both have a supercharger available through TRD (Toyota Racing Development). The supercharger is manufactured by Alpine Developments and are available from LCEngineering.com. This kit is rated at an increase of 50% power at 8 psi of boost. The most commonly seen is the TRD supercharger available for the 5VZ-FE V6, which is manufactured by Magnuson Products. This particular supercharger is rated to increase power from 190 hp (140 kW) to 251 hp (187 kW).

The 2005 - 2008 4.0 litre (1GR-FE) engine also has a supercharger available from URD (Underdog Racing Development). It increases the RWHP from 209 to 305. That's 236 horsepower (176 kW) to approximately 366 horsepower (273 kW). The OEM for this supercharger is Rotrex.

American special forces useEdit

During Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation Enduring Freedom, multiple Toyota Tacomas have been observed in use by special forces units of the U.S. Army. Typically, they have been Double Cab models, with SR5 and TRD packages.

Despite the fact that the Hilux, which the Tacoma is based on, is extremely common in the Middle East, the special forces found it to be easier to purchase them from American dealerships, modify them appropriately, and ship them to their areas. The Tacoma and Hilux share a similar body, but the chassis is significantly different in the Tacoma and believed to be much weaker[citation needed]. The gasoline engine used is significantly quieter than the diesel engines used in the HMMWV. These were modified by eliminating the factory radio, along with almost all exterior lights and door buzzers. The front headlights have been modified to work in IR, in order to work with night vision. The engines are unmodified, but the vehicles have been fitted with brush guards, Warn winches, and a rollbar with a machine gun mount.[11]

SalesEdit

Calendar Year US Sales
2000[12] 147,295
2001 161,983
2002[13] 151,960
2003 154,154
2004[14] 152,933
2005 168,831
2006[15] 178,351
2007 173,238
2008[16] 144,655

ReferencesEdit

Smallwikipedialogo This page uses some content from Wikipedia. The original article was at Toyota Tacoma. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with Tractor & Construction Plant Wiki, the text of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons by Attribution License and/or GNU Free Documentation License. Please check page history for when the original article was copied to Wikia

  1. "Fuel Economy". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved on 2010-10-17.
  2. "Toyota Vehicles : Toyota Announces Customer Support Program For 1995-2000 Tacoma Pickups / Toyota". Pressroom.toyota.com (2008-03-07). Retrieved on 2009-12-12.
  3. Jensen, Christopher (2008-05-07). "Toyota Offers to Buy Back Rusty Tacomas - Wheels Blog - NYTimes.com". Wheels.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved on 2009-12-12.
  4. "Most Small Pickups 'Dismal' In Crash Test -- Toyota Rates Best Among 5 Tested". KCRA.com (2008-07-24). Retrieved on 2008-08-03.
  5. http://pressroom.toyota.com/pr/tms/toyota/document/2009Tacoma_r.pdf?ncid=12076
  6. You must specify title = and url = when using {{cite web}}."". The Auto Writer (2008-07-24). Retrieved on 2008-08-03.
  7. "IIHS-HLDI: Toyota Tacoma". Iihs.org (2009-10-22). Retrieved on 2009-12-12.
  8. "IIHS-HLDI: Toyota Tacoma". Iihs.org (2009-11-18). Retrieved on 2009-12-12.
  9. "Safercar.gov". Safercar.gov. Retrieved on 2009-12-12.[dead link]
  10. "TRD Supercharger Available for FJ Cruiser, Tacoma". Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A, Inc. (October 26, 2007). Retrieved on September 7, 2010.
  11. "MilitaryTacoma". Brian894x4.com. Retrieved on 2010-10-17.
  12. "Toyota Sets Sales Record for Sixth Year in a Row". Theautochannel.com. Retrieved on 2009-12-12.
  13. "Toyota Announces Best Sales Year in Its 46-Year History, Breaks Sales Record for Eighth Year in a Row". Theautochannel.com. Retrieved on 2009-12-12.
  14. "Toyota Reports 2005 and December Sales". Theautochannel.com (2006-01-04). Retrieved on 2009-12-12.
  15. "Toyota Reports 2007 and December Sales". Theautochannel.com (2008-01-03). Retrieved on 2009-12-12.
  16. "Toyota Reports 2008 and December Sales". Theautochannel.com (2009-01-05). Retrieved on 2009-12-12.

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